==Obligation to say Brachot [[Kriyat Shema]]==
# Along with the [[Kriyat Shema]] one says seven Brachot of praise <ref> In total there are seven Brachot of thanks and praise, which the Yerushalmi (Brachot 1:5) says is based on the pasuk “Shevah BaYom Hilalticha Al Mishpatei Tzidkatach” (Tehilim 119:164) “Seven times a day I praise you with the laws of your righteousness” meaning one says seven Brachot of praise along with words of Torah, i.e. Shema. This connection is brought down by Rashi (Brachot 11a), Rishonim on Brachot 11a, and Tur 58. </ref> are said as follows: by Shacharit, two Brachot prior to Shema and one after Shema, and by Arvit, two Brachot before Shema and two after Shema. <Ref>Mishna in Brachot 11a says that one makes two before Shema and one afterwards by Shacharit and two before and two afterwards by Arvit.
So rules Rambam (Kriyat Shema 1:5), and Tur 58. </ref>
# These Brachot are Derbanan. <ref> Kol Bo (Siman 5e and 122) say that Brachot Pesukei Dezimrah are Derabanan but Brachot [[Kriyat Shema]] are Deoritta. So writes Rabbenu Yosef ben Pelet and Rabbenu Yishaya. However, it seems(lacking explicit sources) that we hold Le’halacha that the Brachot are Derabbanan as many times the Achronim use the idea of [[Safek Brachot LeHakel]] by these Brachot as well. </ref>
==Making a mistake in Yotzer Or==
# If one started the bracha of Yotzer with “Baruch atta Hashem…Asher Bidvaro Mariv Aravim” (the words usually said by Brachot Shema of Arvit) and concluded with “HaMariv Aravim” one doesn’t fulfill his obligation and must repeat the bracha of Yotzer. <Ref> Brachot 12a (according to Rashi, other Rishonim explain it differently) says that if one started with Yotzer Or and concluded with Mariv Aravim one doesn’t fulfill his obligation but if one started with Mariv Aravim and concluded with Yotzer Meorot one fulfills his obligation because the bracha follows the conclusion (whenever the conclusion has it’s own Baruch). Implied from all the Rishonim (see Bet Yosef 59:2) who discuss the Gemara is that if one started with Mariv Aravim and concluded with it one doesn’t fulfill his obligation.
So rules Halacha Brurah 59:7. </ref>
# If one concludes “HaMariv Aravim” even if he mentioned Yotzer Or in the beginning of the bracha one doesn’t fulfill his obligation and must repeat the bracha. <ref> Pri Chadash 671:2 writes that the Rif holds if one said Yotzer Or in the beginning then even if he concludes with Mariv Aravim he fulfills his obligation. However, this opinion is in conflict of all the Rishonim and Achronim who agree that the conclusion is needs to be correct but disagree as to whether also the beginning needs to be correct (Bet Yosef 59:2). The Mamer Mordechai 59:3 and Halacha Brurah 59:8 argue with the Pri Chadash’s proof. </ref>
# If one concluded with “Yotzer HaMeorot” but started the bracha of Yotzer with “Baruch atta Hashem…Asher Bidvaro Mariv Aravim” (the words usually said by Brachot Shema of Arvit), there’s a dispute whether one fulfills his obligation and so one shouldn’t repeat the bracha ([[Safek Brachot LeHakel]]). <Ref> See previous note. Bet Yosef gives two explanations in the Tur. The first explanation (which is the opinion of the Rosh Brachot 1:14), is that one needs both the beginning and conclusion of the Bracha to mention Yotzer Or to fulfill one’s obligation. S”A 59:2 (along with Rama’s comment) rules that if one didn’t say the beginning of the Bracha and the conclusion correctly one doesn’t fulfill his obligation and so he must repeat. So holds the Prisha 59:3. Derisha 59:1, Levush 59:2, Bach 59, Hagahot Maralach 59:1, Taz 59:1, Magan Avraham 59:1, Chemed Moshe 59:1, Mamer Mordechai 59:4, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 59:1, and Kaf HaChaim 59:15. The second explanation is that as long as the conclusion is correct one fulfills his obligation. The Bet Yosef says that this is also the opinion of the Rashba (Brachot 12a) in name of Rashi. So holds the Gra 59:4, and Erech Lechem 59. Halacha Brurah says that this is also the opinion of the Rambam (according to Talmedei Rabbenu Yonah 6a, Rabbenu Manoach, and Sefer HaBatim against the Kesef Mishna’s understanding of the Rambam), Rif (according to Hashlama, Sefer Meorot (Brachot 12a), and Rashbetz against the implication that the Rosh and Bet Yosef didn’t quote the Rif), the Rivavan Rid, Nemukei Yosef and Meiri in name of Yesh Omrim. Mishna Brurah (Biur Halacha D”H VeLo Amar) adds that this is the opinion of Ramban (who was explaining the Yerushalmi Brachot 1:4). Therefore, Halacha Brurah and Ish Matzliach on Mishna Brurah conclude because of a [[Safek Brachot LeHakel]] even against S”A (based on the opinion of the Chida in Sh”t Chaim Shoel 2:248) and so we don’t repeat the bracha. </ref>
# If one concluded “Yotzer HaMeorot” and said the words “Yotzer Or” in the beginning of the Bracha (even not within Toche Kedei Dibur of the phrase “Bidvaro Mariv Aravim”) one fulfills his obligation. <Ref> S”A 59:2 says it counts as a mentioning of the beginning is one remembers “Meyad”(immediately). Bach 59, Perisha 59:3, Pri Chadash 59:2 say that if one forgot to mention in the first phrase “Asher Bidvaro Mariv Aravim” and remembers immediately meaning within Toche Kadei Dibbur it’s considered as mentioning it in the beginning. If only remembers later on it doesn’t count as a mentioning in the beginning. So explains the Pri Megadim (M”Z 59:1) the words of S”A. However, Mamer Mordechai 59:4, Mishna Brurah (Biur Halacha D”H Venizkar Meyad), Shalmei Tzibbur 90a, Kaf HaChaim 59:16, and Halacha Brurah 59:7 explain that S”A used the word “Meyad” as the usual case as it seems from Bet Yosef and so one only needs to remember anytime before the bracha at the conclusion. </ref>
# If one needs to repeat the bracha of Yotzer Or (because of a mistake) it should be said immediately. However if one didn’t realize the mistake until after the next bracha of Ahavat Olam then one should only say it after Shemona Esrah. Ashkenazim have what to rely on to say Yotzer Or after Ahavat Olam before Shema. <Ref> S”A 60:2 rules that one can say Shema without Brachot and then later say the Brachot. Therefore, Magan Avraham 59:1 says if one needs to repeat the bracha and one already said the bracha of Ahavat Olam one shouldn’t interrupt there with Yotzer Or but rather should say it after [[Shemoneh Esrei]]. So holds Beir Heteiv 59:2, Machsit HaShekel 59:1, Kesher Gudal 1:4, Shalmei Tzibbur 90a, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 59:1, Siddur Bet Ovad (Dinei [[Kriyat Shema]] 4), and Halacha Brurah 59:8. However the Eliyah Raba 59:2 argues that it’s not an interruption and needs to be said before Shema.
So rules Derech HaChaim in name of the Rashba, Kaf HaChaim 59:17, and Mishna Brurah 59:2. However Halacha Brurah and Sh”t Tehila LeDavid 59:5 say that the Eliyah Raba says it’s not an interruption only according to Rashba (Brachot 11b) who says that Ahavat Olam isn’t a Brachot HaMitzah. However, Ramban (Likutei HaRamban beginning of Brachot D”H Kavar Haya) disagrees and holds it’s a Birkat HaMitzvah. Thus, one should not interrupt like the Magan Avraham. [The first explanation of the Bet Yosef 59 says that the Rosh (Sh”t HaRosh 4:19) holds Ahavat Olam isn’t a Birkat HaMitzvah and Rambam (Brachot 1:17) holds it is a Birkat HaMitzvah.] </ref>
# If one is unsure whether he’s in middle of Brachot Yotzer Or or Ahavat Olam such as he was caught saying “HaGadol Hagibor VeHanorah” which appears in both Brachot and was unsure which he was saying, he should return the Hagol Hagibor of the first bracha. Yet, one has what to rely on to continue with the second Bracha. <ref> Sh”t Pri HaAretz 1:3 rules that one should return to the first bracha. Sh”t Mateh Efraim Arditi 2 pg 3b, Sh”t Kol Eliyahu 2:4, Petach Dvir 60:3 concur. Halacha Brurah 59:17 supports this from the Meiri (Brachot 16a), Nemukei Yosef (16a), and Piskei Riaz (Brachot 2:3(3)) who write the law if one is unsure while in middle of [[Kriyat Shema]] he should return the earlier mention of the similar words and conclude “so too by Brachot of Shema before and after.” Halacha Brurah concludes that in our case there isn’t an issue of [[Safek Brachot LeHakel]] since according to some Rishonim if one doesn’t say the first bracha at all and only said the second one would be making a bracha levatala because both are necessary. In our case there is a safek whether to go back and perhaps say an extra bracha that’s unnecessary or to continue and perhaps be actively making the second bracha levatala. Nonetheless, many Achronim rule that a person should continue from the second bracha because of [[Safek Brachot LeHakel]] including Yad Aharon (Hagahot Tur 60), Bear Heteiv 60:1, Sh”t Kiryat Chana 1, Shalmei Tzibbur 91c, Kesher Gudal 10:8, Hagahot Rabbi Akiva Eiger 64:3, Sh”t Nishmat Chaim 6, Chesed LeAlafim 60:5, and Ben Ish Chai Shemot 4. </ref>
# If one hears Kedusha, one can only answer “Kadosh Kadosh…” and “Baruch Kavod…”, but not “Yimloch Hashem…” <ref> By Birchot Shema, Rosh brachot 2:5 quotes Maharam MeRutenberg who says even though the gemara (Brachot 13b) allows an interruption of greeting one who is due respect still one can’t interrupt one praise of Hashem with another. The Rosh argues that one can answer kaddish or kedusha and brings a proof from Brachot 21a that only in [[Shemoneh Esrei]] one can’t answer dvarim shebekedusha.
So rules Tur and S”A 66:3 that one in kiryat Shema one can interrupt for Kaddish, kedusha and baruchu.. Since regularly Shulchan Aruch 125:1 holds one doesn’t say the entire passage of Kedusha and the Arizal (Shaar Kavanot 3 of Chazarat Amida pg 39a) holds one does say the entire passage, in a place where one can’t interrupt then one shouldn’t say the entire passage, so holds Kaf Hachaim of Rabbi Chaim Sofer 66:18. Concerning Yimloch, the Divrei Chamudot Brachot 2:23 says Yimloch isn’t one of the relevant pasukim said by Yishya and Yichezkel from the angels. Magan Avraham 66:6 supports this with a Tosefta and we hold not like the Hagat Yesh Nochlin (azharat tefilah 12 D”H vechen le’inyan). So holds Eliyah Raba 66:5, Yad Aharon 66 Hagahot Hatur, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 66:5,Shalmei Tzibbur 96, Chaye Adam 20:4, Sh”t Chatom Sofer Kovetz teshuvot 4, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 16:3, Mishna Brurah 66:17, Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 2:4, Sh”t Yechave Daat 6:3, Halichot Olam 1 Shemot 5 D”H VeDah. However the Gra 66:10 argues based on many rishonim (such as Ravya Brachot 66, Orchot Chaim Tefilah 78) that Yimloch is part of Kedusha. Therefore one should refrain from saying Yimloch during Brachot Kiyat Shema. </ref>
# One can’t answer Baruch Hu Ubaruch Shemo <ref> Magan Avraham 124:9 says any time one isn’t allow to talk one can’t answer Baruch Hu UBaruch Shemo, therefore seemingly in [[Pesukei DeZimrah]] and Brachot [[Kriyat Shema]] one can’t answer it (according to Rif and Rosh (Brachot, Ein Omdin) who say not to interrupt with speech from Brauch Shamar until after [[Shemoneh Esrei]]). Bear Heteiv 66:9, Chida in Tov Ayin 18:35, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 124:8, Sh”t Zechur LeYitzchak Harari 7, implied by Mishna Brurah 51:8, and Halacha Brurah 51:16 forbid answering Baruch Hu UBaruch Shemo. However, Kaf HaChaim Palagi 18:13, however holds that one can answer it even in Brachot [[Kriyat Shema]].</ref>
# One can’t answer the Kedusha of Brachat Yotzer or Uva Letzion. <Ref> Sh”t Yabia Omer 5:7(2) says not to answer because of the Rishonim who hold that it’s not a Dvar Shebekedusha (Ravya 1:2,66, Talmedei Rabbenu Yonah 13a in name of some Geonim, Hagahot Maymonit Tefilah 7:90 in name of Rashi, Sh”t Maharam 143, Mordechai Brachot 69, Rosh (Brachot 3:18, Megilah 3:7), Tur 59, Orchot Chaim (Din Kedusha Meyushav 1), Ritva Megilah 23b). Sh”t Otzrot Yosef 4:4 rules that even in Pesukei Dezimrah one shouldn’t answer it for the same reason. </ref>