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==General prohibition==
# [[Dash ]] includes removing any earth-grown food from its natural shell or attachment.<ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 317) </ref>
# Mefarek is a [[Toldah]] of Dosh. <ref>Rashi [[Shabbat]] 73b and Rambam ([[Shabbat]] 8:7 and 21:12) write that Mefarek is a [[Toldah]] of Dosh. </ref>
# Mefarek includes [[squeezing ]] juice from fruit ([[Sechitah]]) or liquid from a cloth. <ref>Rambam ([[Shabbat ]] 8:10 and 21:12) writes that [[squeezing ]] fruit ([[Sechitah]]) is a violation of Mefarek. 39 Melachos (Dosh note 113) quotes Tosfot Ketubot 6a s.v. Hay who holds that [[squeezing ]] a liquid from a cloth is also considered Mefarek. </ref>
==Removing peas from a pod==
# One may not remove peas from an inedible pod on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 325) </ref>
==Squeezing a fruit==
# It’s forbidden to squeeze a fruit in order to extract it’s liquid if one squeezes the fruit into a liquid or empty vessel. The prohibition is violated whether it’s done with one’s hand or a utensil. <Ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat ]] KeHilchata 5:1,2. [[Squeezing ]] a liquid out of a solid ([[Sechita]]) is Mefarek which is a [[Toldah]] of the Melacha of [[Dash ]] (Iglei Tal, [[Dash ]] #8, Mishna Brurah 320:1). * S"A 320:1 writes that it's forbidden to squeeze olives and grapes and the juice which flows from them by itself is forbidden for consumption, however, berries and pomegranates even though they are forbidden to be squeezed the juices from them that flow by itself are permissible if the fruit was meant to be eaten and not be squeezed for the juice, lastly, all other fruit is permissible to squeeze. The Rama 320:1 explains that in places where it's normal to squeeze certain fruits for it's juices it is also forbidden to squeeze like berries and pomegranates; in other words, the Rama 320:1 holds that a fruit's usage is based on the place one is residing. Mishna Brurah 320:5 explains that [[squeezing ]] berries and pomegranates is forbidden rabbinically because some people squeeze them for the juice like grapes and olives. However, all other fruit in the days of Shulchan Aruch weren't squeezed for juice but rather were eaten and so it would be permissible because the fruit if considered like a solid and extracting one solid from another is permissible. * Therefore, the Shemirat [[Shabbat ]] KeHilchata (chap 5 note 4) writes that nowadays that it is common to squeeze all fruit for the juice it's forbidden to squeeze any fruit on [[Shabbat]]. On the other hand, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 328) lists certain fruits which are rabbinically prohibited to squeeze includes oranges, lemons, grapefruits, apples, pineapples, cherries, strawberries, peaches, plums, pomegranates, and tomatoes. Similarly, Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 3, 343 and 491) delineates certain fruits which are squeezed for the juices in some places such as grapes, olives, berries, pomegranates, apples, grapefruits, pears, mangoes, tangerines, and pineapples would be forbidden to squeeze on [[Shabbat]], however, fruits which are not squeezed anywhere such as quince or watermelon one may squeeze it on [[Shabbat]]. Yalkut Yosef (pg 344) adds that even when it's permissible to squeeze a fruit it may only be done by hand and not with a juicer (tool).</ref> One may not squeeze a fruit into an empty vessel with intent to put solid food in afterwards. <Ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat ]] KeHilchata 5:5 </ref># It’s permitted to squeeze a fruit with one’s hand onto a solid food if either the food absorbs the liquid or the liquid is meant to improve the flavor of the food. <Ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat ]] KeHilchata 5:3,7, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 345) </ref>
===Liquids that oozed out themselves===
# Juice that oozed (by itself) out of fruit, which is specifically designated to be eaten, is permitted to drink. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat ]] KeHilchata 5:11 </ref>
===Squeezing a lemon===
# It is permitted to squeeze a lemon on sugar even if one’s intent is to put the sugar in a liquid afterwards, however, there are authorities who are strict on this issue. <Ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat ]] KeHilchata 5:5,6, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 346). Although the Shulchan Aruch 320:6 states that one may squeeze a lemon on [[Shabbat]], the Mishna Brurah 320:22 explains that the reason for the leniency doesn't apply today. Kitzur S"A 80:12 writes that its forbidden to squeeze lemons to make lemonade.</ref># It’s permissible to cut a slice of lemon and put it into a drink even though the juice will seep out. <Ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat ]] KeHilchata 5:2 </ref> Note that if the drink is hot tea its only permissible if it is made in a Kli Shelishi (see [[Bishul]]). One may gently stir the tea but one may not press the lemon against the wall of the cup. Additionally, one should cut the lemon directly over the tea. <ref> 39 Mleachos (vol 2, pg 340) </ref>
===Squeezing out excess liquid===
# It’s permitted to squeeze out excess liquid in a food to improve it’s taste if it’s done immediately prior to eating. For example it’s permitted to squeeze a pickled cucumber to remove some of it’s vinegar if one is going to eat the pickle right away. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat ]] KeHilchata 5:8, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 341), Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]] vol 3 pg 350) </ref>
# One may squeeze out latkes from excess vegetable oil if ones intention is to get rid of the oil and it is done right before eating.<ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 342) </ref>
# It's commendable to refrain from [[squeezing ]] a piece of meat, fish, or chicken to get rid of excess gravy if the gravy contains water or wine.<ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 342) </ref>
===Sucking on a fruit===
# One may suck on any fruit except for grapes even though one is extracting liquid with one's mouth. However, one shouldn’t squeeze the fruit with one’s hand. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat ]] KeHilchata 5:10, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 339). Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]] vol 3 pg 248) and Halichot Olam (vol 4 pg 106) permit even regarding grapes but add that it's a proper practice to refrain. </ref> # It’s permitted to dip bread in a soup or other dip and then suck off the liquid, but it’s preferable to eat a little of the bread with it. <Ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat ]] KeHilchata 5:9 </ref>
===Cutting a grapefruit or watermelon===
# It’s permitted to cut a grapefruit (or watermelon) even if liquids will ooze out as long as one doesn’t intend specifically to drink the juices rather to eat the fruit and that one doesn’t intentionally doesn’t squeeze the fruit. <Ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat ]] KeHilchata 5:12, Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 3, pg 345), 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 340), [http://www.dailyhalacha.com/displayRead.asp?readID=2278 Rabbi Mansour] on Dailyhalacha.com </ref>
# One may scrape out grapefruit with a spoon to eat the pulp (the flesh of the fruit) attached to the peel, however, it's forbidden to press the spoon against the pulp in order to extract juices. <ref> 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 341), [http://www.dailyhalacha.com/displayRead.asp?readID=2278 Rabbi Mansour] on Dailyhalacha.com </ref>
===Squeezing grapes===
# It is permitted to squeeze grapes onto food, but it is forbidden to squeeze grapes into an empty dish even if it is for flavor. <ref> S"A 320:4 </ref>
# However, if one is stringent and does not even squeeze fruits onto food shall be blessed. <ref> Mishnah Berura 320:17 </ref>
# It’s preferable not to squeeze grapes even onto solid foods that will absorb the liquid or be improved. <Ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat ]] KeHilchata 5:4 </ref># One shouldn’t suck on grapes while holding them in one’s hand, rather one should put the entire grape in one’s mouth, eat (or suck on it) and take out what’s left. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat ]] KeHilchata 5:10 </ref># It is forbidden to drink juice that oozed out of grapes by itself. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat ]] KeHilchata 5:11 </ref>
==Squeezing a liquid out of a cloth==
# It is forbidden to squeeze any liquid out of any cloth on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>S"A 320:12, 18, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 347) </ref>
# If wine spilled on a tablecloth one may not wring out the cloth. If some of the liquid didn't get absorbed one may scoop it off with a spoon if one is careful not to spread the colored wine over a wider area (which is an issue of [[Tzoveya]]. <ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 348) </ref>
# A wet washcloth or rag is not [[Muktzeh ]] and may be moved if one is careful not to grip it tightly. <ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 354) </ref>
==Using a sponge or brush on Shabbat==
# One may not clean dishes or even gently wipe a countertop with a sponge because gripping the sponge will inevitably cause liquid to be squeezed out where one's fingers grasp the material. However, using a sponge which has a handle or a vinyl back one may gently wipe a countertop but it is still forbidden to wash dishes.<ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 348-9) </ref>
# One shouldn't use a dry sponge to wipe up a spill unless the sponge has a handle or vinyl back.<ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 349) </ref>
# One may not use a wet brush to scrub if the brush's fibers are soft and dense. However, if the fibers are stiff, sparse, and made out of synthetic material one may use that brush for scrubbing. Similarly, a plastic mesh or wire mesh may be used for scrubbing only if the fibers are thin and the netting is widely spaced. However, one may not use a mesh if the fibers are closely packed; for example, one may not use a steel wool pad. To determine whether the fibers are considered dense or sparse one should conduct the following test before [[Shabbat]]: Immerse it in water and upon removing it if the water drains out immediately the fibers are considered widely spaced, however, if water stays absorbed it is considered densely spaced.<ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 349-50) </ref>
# A wet sponge is [[Muktzeh]] Machmat Issur and may only be moved if the space it is occupying is needed. When moving a wet sponge one should do so gently so as not to squeeze out any liquid. However, a dry sponge or a wet sponge which has a handle or vinyl backing aren't [[muktzeh ]] and may be moved for any necessary purpose. <ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 354) </ref>
==Squeezing water from hair==
# It is forbidden to squeeze water out of one's hair on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Mishna Brurah 326:25</ref>Similarly, one shouldn't shampoo one's hair on [[shabbat]]. <ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 371)</ref>
# One may wet one's hair if one does not squeeze it out. <ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 371)</ref>
# One should not shake one's head vigorously in order to remove the absorbed water. <ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 372)</ref>
==Nursing==
# It is only permissible to nurse on [[Shabbat]] if the infant feeds directly from the mother. A nursing mother who is experiencing pain may express excess milk if it goes directly to waste and is not collected in a cup or container. <ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 356) </ref>
 
==Milking an Animal==
# It is forbidden to milk an animal on [[Shabbat]], as this is a violation of mifarek, which falls under the melacha of Dosh. <ref> Yalkut Yosef [[Shabbat]] vol. 2 pg. 110. see there for discussion if this is a torah violation or rabbinic </ref>
# It is permissible to tell a non-Jew to milk an animal for you on [[Shabbat]] because if you don't it will cause the animal pain, but the milk is considered [[muktzeh]] for the day. <ref> Yalkut Yosef vol 2. pg. 110, Sh"t Yabea Omer 9:30 </ref> If a non-Jew is not available one should let the milk go to waste so that the violation is only dirabanan which would be allowed to save the animal from the pain, and one should try to do it with a shinui. <ref> Yalkut Yosef [[Shabbat]] vol 2. pg. 111 </ref> This leniency to allow a Jew to do it, only applies if there are no baby animals who can milk the adults. <ref> Yalkut Yosef [[Shabbat]] vol. 2 pg. 112 </ref>
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