Rosh Hashana

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Insertions in Shemona Esreh between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur

  1. We change the conclusion of the Bracha HaEl HaKadosh to HaMelech HaKadosh during Aseret Yemei Teshuva. [1] If one forgot and remembered within Toch Kedi Dibbur (2-3 seconds) then one should say HaMelech HaKadosh right then. [2] If one remembered only afterwards one must start from the beginning of Shemona Esreh. If one is unsure it’s the same as if one forgot. [3]
  2. We change the conclusion of the Bracha Melech Ohev Tzedaka UMishpat to HaMelech HaMishpat during Aseret Yemei Teshuva. According to Ashkenazim, if one forgot, one doesn’t go back. [4] According to Sephardim, if one forgot and remembered within Toch Kedi Dibbur (2-3 seconds) then one should say HaMelech HaKadosh right then. If one remembered afterwards, some say that one should return to the Bracha of Hashiva, however if one finished Shemona Esreh one must start from the beginning of Shemona Esreh. If one is unsure it’s the same as if one forgot. [5]However, some say that if one only remembered after Toch Kedi Dibbur one need not repeat anything. [6]
  3. We also insert add Zachrenu LeChaim, Mi Kamocha, Ketov BeSefer Chaim, and UveSefer Chaim into Shemona Esreh during the days between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur. One may not skip UveSefer Chaim in order to catch Kedusha with the congregation. [7]
  4. We change from HaEl HaKadosh to HaMelech HaKadosh in the Bracha Mein Sheva that the Sheliach Tzibbur says on Friday night. [8]If he forgets and remembers before the end of the Bracha he goes back to HaEl HaKadosh, if he remembers after concluding the Bracha, he doesn’t go back. [9]

Change in Kaddish between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur

  1. The Ashkenazic minhag during the ten days between Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur (Aseret Yemei Teshuva) is to say LeElah UleElah MeKol Birchata (in Kaddish) instead of LeElah Min Kol Birchata. [10]

Practices during Prayers

  1. Some have the minhag to stand bent slightly (hunched over slightly) during the Tefillot of Rosh HaShana and if one does so, one should make sure to stand straight for the end and beginning of each Bracha. [11] Some say it’s preferable to stand straight for the Tefillot. [12]
  2. Some have the minhag to daven slightly out loud during Tefillot of Rosh Hashana. [13] However, many authorities discourage this practice. [14]

Simanim (eating certain foods on Rosh Hashana)

  1. There is a custom to eat certain fruits as a good sign for the new year. [15]

Sleeping on Rosh Hashana

  1. It's a proper minhag not to sleep on Rosh Hashana. For someone who has a headache should sleep a little after midday in order to perform the mitzvot and prayers better. [16]

Tashlich

  1. The minhag is to say Tashlich near a ocean or river on the first day of Rosh Hashana after mincha.[17]

Fasting on Rosh Hashana

  1. It's forbidden to fast on Rosh Hashana. [18] Nonetheless, it's permissible to allow prayers to extend past chatzot (halachic midday) and fast until the afternoon. [19]


References

  1. S”A 582:1, Kitzur S”A 129:3
  2. S”A 582:2, Kitzur S”A 129:3
  3. S”A 582:1, Kitzur S”A 129:3
  4. Rama 118:1, Mishna Brurah 582:9
  5. S”A 582:2. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 193) writes that this is the halacha and we don't say Safek Brachot LeHakel however it is more correct to stipulate: if I'm obligated to repeat Shemona Esreh then I'm praying for my obligation, and if the halacha is that I don't have to repeat my prayer should be considered a voluntary prayer.
  6. Rav Mordechai Eliyahu in Maamer Mordechai (Aseret Yami Teshuva #19) based on Ben Ish Chai (Nitsavim #19).
  7. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 205)
  8. S”A 582:3
  9. Mishna Brurah 582:11 writes that if he remembers before the end of the Bracha he goes back, however, after he finishes the Bracha, there’s a dispute in the achronim. However, the Kitzur S”A 129:4 writes that unless he remembers within Toch Kedi Dibbur he doesn’t go back.
  10. Kitzur S”A 129:1 writes to say LeElah LeElah MeKol Birchata. Mishna Brurah 56:2, 582:16 agrees but adds a vav as follows LeElah ULeElah. Rav Mordechai Eliyahu’s footnote on Kitzur S”A 129:1 writes that the Sephardic minhag is not to change this for Aseret Yemei Teshuva.
  11. S”A 582:4 writes that those who have the minhag to stand bent over for Tefillot on Rosh Hashanah should stand straight at the end of the Bracha. Mishna Brurah 582:14 writes that starting from Baruch Atta Hashem through the beginning of the next Bracha one should stand erect so that it doesn’t appear like one is adding the established bows of Chazal.
  12. Kitzur S”A 129:2
  13. S”A 582:9 writes that one may daven out loud during Tefillot of Rosh Hashana and not worry about bothering others Davening since everyone has a machzor. Mishna Brurah 582:24 writes not to raise one’s voice too much.
  14. Kitzur S”A 129:2, Chaye Adam 139:2, Kaf HaChaim 582:17, and Rav Mordechai Eliyahu’s footnote on Kitzur S”A 129:2. Kaf HaChaim 582:17 adds that if one doesn’t have kavana another way one may raise one’s voice slightly.
  15. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, pg 180)
  16. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, pg 183-4), Kaf HaChaim 584:38,39
  17. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, pg 186)
  18. S"A 597:1, Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, pg 180)
  19. Mishna Brurah 597:2 writes that even though usually on Shabbat and Yom Tov one shouldn't fast until after chatzot on rosh hashana it's permissible to allow the davening to extend past chatzot. Rav Hershel Schachter on yutorah.org (min 40-42) explains that this leniency is based on the fact that there are opinions in the Geonim who even permit fasting completely on Rosh Hashana.