Reference of Hashkafic Terms

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Nefesh is the spiritual intellectual element of a person. It is independent of the body and lives beyond a person's death.[1]
Olam Haba
The ultimate reward is eternal life in Olam Haba. There are no physical bodies or physical activities in Olam Haba. Only the Nefashot of righteous people will exist and basque in glory of Hashem, that is, they learn the truth of Hashem from Hashem.[2] This is sometimes described by Chazal as a feast for the righteous.[3]
Gan Eden
Gan Eden is a place on Earth where there are nice pastures, trees, and rivers. Its location will be revealed in the future and people be able to enjoy it.[4]
Gog UMagog
Techiyat HaMeytim
Techiyat HaMeytim is the revival of the dead in literal physical terms. Only the righteous will merit this. [5]
In the days of Mashiach, the kingship will return to Israel. There will be peace treaties with the nations and any nation that attacks Israel will be defeated. War will be vanquished and sustenance will be plentiful. People will live longer and be freed from worry. The primary reason that the prophets longed for Mashiach was because at that time we will be able to fulfill mitzvot easily and there will be an abundance of righteous people.[6]
The greatest punishment a wicked person can receive is spiritual death. In that case, he is cut off from Klal Yisrael and doesn't merit Olam Haba.[7]
Mitah Bdei Shamayim
Gehinom is a place where the wicked will endure punishment for this sins. It is unclear what their suffering is like. Some say it is like a suffering of being burned and some say it is like the suffering of being burned from within.[8]
Bitachon and Emunah
Emunah is a deep-rooted faith in Hashem's existence, control, and involvement with the world. Bitachon is feeling secure that Hashem will provide and do whatever is for the best.[9]


  1. Rambam (Teshuva 8:3)
  2. Rambam (Teshuva 8:2, Pirush Mishnayot Sanhedrin 10:1) understands that Olam Haba is the ultimate place of reward which is entirely spiritual and not physical. The Raavad (Teshuva 8:2-4) argues that perhaps Olam Haba is a place of physical enjoyment.
  3. Bava Batra 75a, Rambam (Teshuva 8:4)
  4. Rambam (Pirush Mishnayot Sanhedrin 10:1) s.v. Aval Gan Eden
  5. Rambam (Pirush Mishnayot Sanhedrin 10:1) s.v. UTechiyat HaMeytim. The Raavad (Teshuva 8:2) is insistant on showing that the revival of the dead is physical.
  6. Rambam (Pirush Mishnayot Sanhedrin 10:1) s.v. Aval Yemot HaMashiach
  7. Rambam (Teshuva 8:5)
  8. Rambam (Pirush Mishnayot Sanhedrin 10:1) s.v. Aval Gan Eden
  9. Ramban (HaEmunah VeHaBitachon ch. 1) emphasizes that it is impossible to have Bitachon without Emunah, but it is possible to have Emunah without Bitachon.