Melaveh Malka

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  1. A person should set his table on Saturday night even if one only plans on eating a Kezayit so as to respect the exiting of Shabbat. [1] Even though many aren’t careful about it, a Yireh Shamayim (a g-d fearing person) should make an extra effort to keep it. [2]
  2. One should eat with specific intent that it should be for the meal of Malveh Malka, preferably saying this expressly. [3]
  3. Women are also obligated in this meal. [4]
  4. At the end of birkat hamazon we say migdol yishuot malko like on shabbat itself, instead of magdil yishuot. [5]

When?

  1. There’s no obligation for having Malveh Malka on Motzei Yom Tov. [6]
  2. Melva Malka should be fulfilled as soon after Shabbat as possible. If one isn’t hungry one may have it later but shouldn’t do an established activity before having Melveh Malka. However, certainly one shouldn’t delay it past Chatzot of the night. However, if one did delay past Chatzot one may still fulfill it until Olot HaShachar. [7]
  3. If one extended his Seudat Shelishit until it got dark, some say that one is exempt from having Melveh Malka, and some argue. [8]

What?

  1. One should try to eat bread for seudat reviit, but if he cannot then cake is sufficient. If he cannot even eat cake he should at least have some fruits or vegetables. [9]
  2. One should wear nice Shabbat clothes during this meal. [10]
  3. Some have the custom to light candles and sing special zemirot on motzaei shabbat after havdala. [11]
  4. One should spread a tablecloth on the table and set the table nicely. [12]

References

  1. S”A 300:1 writes that a person should set his table for Malveh Malka on Saturday night. This is based on the gemara shabbat 119b. Mishna Brurah 300:2 explains that the reason is to give respect to the exiting of Shabbat.
  2. Aruch HaShulchan 300:3, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 63:1. The midrash kohelet rabba 12:5 says that in the future, a person will be resurrected using a bone located in one’s spine. The Kaf Hachayim 300:1-2 says that this bone called the luz is fed only with food eaten at a melave malka. Mishna Berura 300:2 quotes the taz saying the same thing but calls the bone the nisko. In Shaar Hatziyun 300:7 he writes that since this bone didn't get pleasure from adam's sin, this bone was spared the curse of death.
  3. Mishna Brurah 300:1
  4. Pri Megadim A”A 300:1, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 63:3. Magen Avraham 291:15 quotes the avudarham saying that some women had the custom not to do chores on motzaei shabbat.
  5. Kaf Hachaim 189:11.
  6. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 63:4 even though the Sh”t Rivivot Efraim 3:292 writes that the Chazon Ish would have a Malveh Malka on Motzei Yom TOv.
  7. Mishna Brurah 300:2, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 63: 5 writes that Melveh Malka should be done right after Shabbat and shouldn’t do a established activity before Melvah Malka. However, at least it should be done by Chatzot because the shaare teshuva 300:1 quotes the arizal that the holiness of shabbat remains until then. Nonetheless, Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat vol 1 pg 630) adds that if one didn’t do it before Chatzot one may still fulfill this mitzvah until Olot HaShachar. Kaf Hachayim 300:14 says it should lechatchila be eaten within four halachic hours of shabbat.
  8. Eliyah Rabba 300:1 writes that he heard that if Seudat Shelishit until it got dark one is exempt from having Melveh Malka. However, Tehillat David 300, Kaf HaChaim 300:11 disagree with this.
  9. Mishna Berura 300:1. Yalkut Yosef shabbat 1 300:1. The gra in Biur Hagra 300:1 says that bread must be eaten at the seuda.
  10. Kaf HaChaim 300:6, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 63:2. Leket Yosher page 85 says that one shouldn't remove his shabbat clothes until he goes to sleep on motzaei shabbat.
  11. Mishna Berura 300:3
  12. Mishna Berura 300:1