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Koshair (Tying) and Matir (untying)
The Basics of Koshair
- The Melacha of Koshair is the binding two pliable items by intertwining them such as through a firm knot or twining threads into rope. 
- A knot that’s forbidden on a Torah level is one that is both (1) professional and (2) is meant to be permanent. 
- A knot that is a professional knot but isn't meant to be permanent or a permanent know which isn't professional is forbidden on a Rabbinic level.  Some hold that a knot which is permanent even if it's not professional is Biblical prohibited. 
- A knot that’s not profession and doesn't have any degree of permanence is permissible to tie. A loose knot which isn't meant to last more than 24 hours is permissible.  Some authorities permit even up to 7 days. 
- Even if you personally intend to leave it less than 24 hours, if it’s a knot sometimes left permanently by people it’s forbidden Rabbinically to prevent confusion between temporary and permanent knots. 
- Tightening a knot forbidden to tie is also forbidden. 
- Any knot that’s permitted to tie is permitted to untie. 
- A bow-knot, slipknot, or a single-knot isn’t a true Kesher-bind and is permissible even if it does remain in place for a while.  For example: a ribbon on a gift, a single bind on a shopping bag or garbage liner.
- An adjustable loop necktie that can be undone by pulling is permissible if one intends to take it out within 24 hours. Some permit even if the tie isn’t usually undone after wearing. 
A bow on top of a single knot
- Tying your shoes or a decorative ribbon on a blouse with a bow-knot on top of a single knot (initial winding) is permissible if it’s meant to be untied within 24 hours. 
- Someone doing the wrapping of an Ashkenaz Sefer Torah and has to tie a sash around the Torah, it’s permissible to tie a bow on top of a single knot. If the sash is long enough that it’ll be tight if you just do a single knot and then wrap it around and tuck in the end, it’s preferable. 
- It is forbidden to tie a tight double knot. 
- It is forbidden to tie a single knot with one string onto itself. 
- Some permit tying a double knot if it’s not meant to last.  For example, it’s permissible to tie a double knot for a belt (gartel) or sash (tichel) if it’s going to be untied in 24 hours since it’s not meant to be tight.  Those who are stringent will be blessed. 
- If without intent one made a double knot when tying his shoes he can untie it. 
- One can untie a double knot that is made on a candy bag given out at shul for a simcha. 
- Socks or gloves that are tied together should be detached before Shabbat, but if one forgot one should untie it but ripe it so as to destroy the string. 
- One can take out the pins put into shirts in packaging to keep it from wrinkling. 
- It’s totally permitted to thread new laces into shoes to replace old laces but it’s not permitted if the shoe was never laced. 
- Mishna Brurah(317:34) quoting the Rambam, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 51:52
- Shulchan Aruch (317:1) in the opinion of the Rambam and Rif
- Shulchan Aruch (317:1) according to the Rambam and Rif, Mishna Brurah (intro to 317)
- The Rama (317:1) quoting the opinion of Rashi and Rosh
- The Rama 317:1 quoting Tur and Mordechai; Mishna Brurah (317:6) explains it as anything less than 24 hours.
- Rama also quotes Kol Bo and Hagot Maymoniyot. Yalkut Yosef (317:6) writes that Sephardim hold like this opinion.
- Magan Avraham (317:20), Kol Sinai (Koshair #3)
- Shemirat Shabbat Ke’hilchata 15:50, Az Nidabru 3:22, Bier Moshe 6:3
- Rama 317:1
- Shulchan Aruch (317:5) and implied by Rama (317:1), brought by the Yalkut Yosef (317:11)
- Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata(15:58), Rabbi Reuven Feinstein in name of his father Rav Moshe Feinstein
- Shulchan Aruch (317:5) rules that a bow-knot isn’t a Kesher, on this the Rama adds that a bow on a single knot is permissible. The Mishna Brurah (317:29) qualifies this that it’s only where the single knot isn’t meant to last (more than 24 hours). However the Yalkut Yosef(317:11), Az Nidabru 6:22, Kol Sinai Koshair 5 rule that some permit even if the single knot is meant to last but says it preferable to be stringent if the knot is meant to last 7 days.
- Tzitz Eliezer 7:29, Shalmat Chaim 185, Beir Moshe 6:55.
- Rama (317:1) quoting the Smag
- Rama (317:1) quoting the Hagot Alfasi
- Yalkut Yosef (317:8) says that some disagree and permit even a double knot as long as it’s not Kesher Shel Kayama according to the Rosh (only Kayama is a factor, not Uman) and concludes the Minhag is to permit and the stringent one will be blessed. But in a case of need there’s no need to be strict. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 15:52 (in new edition 15:55) agrees.
- Shaarei Teshuva (317:1), Tzitz Eliezer 16:10, Menuchat Ahava 14:5
- To be strict for the opinion of Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 8:45 and Rav Poalim O”C 2:44
- Mishnat Halachot 3:38, Kol Sinai Koshair 3:5
- Toldot Yitzchak O”C 2:11
- Shemirat Shabbat Kahilchata 15:63 in name of Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach, Az Nidabru 1:58.
- Shemirat Shabbat Kahilchata 15:64 in name of Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach, Bier Moshe 1:22.
- Rav Ovadya Yosef in the Haskama of Netiv Mitzvot, Mayim Chaim Meshash O”C 1:147, Bier Moshe 2:20(2),6:59, Tefilah LeMoshe 1:58.