Difference between revisions of "Koshair"

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== A bow==
 
== A bow==
# A bow-knot, slipknot, or a single-knot isn’t a true Kesher-bind and is permissible even if it does remain in place for a while. <Ref> Shulchan Aruch (317:5) and implied by Rama (317:1), brought by the Yalkut Yosef (317:11) </ref> For example: a ribbon on a gift, a single bind on a shopping bag or garbage liner.
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# A bow-knot, slipknot, or a single-knot isn’t a true Kesher-bind and is permissible even if it does remain in place for a while. <Ref> Shulchan Aruch (317:5) and implied by Rama (317:1). Kitzur S"A 80:45 and Yalkut Yosef (317:11) agree. </ref> For example: a ribbon on a gift, a single bind on a shopping bag or garbage liner.
 
# It is permitted to tie a slip knot or bow without a underlying knot even if it is tight and meant never to be undone. <Ref>Shulchan Aruch (317:5), Biur Halacha 317:5, Yalkut Yosef (317:11, [[Shabbat]], vol 2, pg 562), The Shabbos Home (Rabbi Simcha Cohen, vol 1, chap 13, pg 207) </ref>
 
# It is permitted to tie a slip knot or bow without a underlying knot even if it is tight and meant never to be undone. <Ref>Shulchan Aruch (317:5), Biur Halacha 317:5, Yalkut Yosef (317:11, [[Shabbat]], vol 2, pg 562), The Shabbos Home (Rabbi Simcha Cohen, vol 1, chap 13, pg 207) </ref>
 
# After tying a bow knot (a bow on top of a single knot), as is common when tying one's shoes, one may not tie a second bow on top of the bow knot. <ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 798) </ref>
 
# After tying a bow knot (a bow on top of a single knot), as is common when tying one's shoes, one may not tie a second bow on top of the bow knot. <ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 798) </ref>
  
 
== A bow on top of a single knot==
 
== A bow on top of a single knot==
# According to Ashkenazim, it is permissible to tie one's shoelaces or a decorative ribbon on a blouse with a bow on top of a single knot (initial winding) only if it’s meant to be untied within 24 hours. <Ref> Shulchan Aruch (317:5) rules that a bow-knot isn’t a Kesher, on this the Rama adds that a bow on a single knot is permissible. The Mishna Brurah (317:29) qualifies this that it’s only where the single knot isn’t meant to last (more than 24 hours). Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 15:53 (in new edition 15:56), 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 798), and the Shabbos Home (Rabbi Simcha Cohen, vol 1, chap 13, pg 207) concur with the Mishna Brurah. </ref> However, if one doesn't usually untie it within 24 hours  (and manages to slip one's foot in and out) it would be forbidden to tie one's shoes on [[Shabbat]]. <ref> 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 798) </ref>According to Sephardim it is permissible even if it isn't meant to be untied within 24 hours, yet it's preferable to make sure to untie it within 7 days. <ref> Yalkut Yosef(317:11), Az Nidabru 6:22, and Rav Ovadyah in Kol Sinai (Koshair #5) rule that some permit even if the single knot is meant to last but says it preferable to be stringent if the knot is meant to last 7 days. </ref>
+
# According to Ashkenazim, it is permissible to tie one's shoelaces or a decorative ribbon on a blouse with a bow on top of a single knot (initial winding) only if it’s meant to be untied within 24 hours. <Ref> Shulchan Aruch (317:5) rules that a bow-knot isn’t a Kesher, on this the Rama adds that a bow on a single knot is permissible. The Mishna Brurah (317:29) qualifies this that it’s only where the single knot isn’t meant to last (more than 24 hours). Kitzur S"A 80:45, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 15:53 (in new edition 15:56), 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 798), and the Shabbos Home (Rabbi Simcha Cohen, vol 1, chap 13, pg 207) concur with the Mishna Brurah. </ref> However, if one doesn't usually untie it within 24 hours  (and manages to slip one's foot in and out) it would be forbidden to tie one's shoes on [[Shabbat]]. <ref> 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 798) </ref>According to Sephardim it is permissible even if it isn't meant to be untied within 24 hours, yet it's preferable to make sure to untie it within 7 days. <ref> Yalkut Yosef(317:11), Az Nidabru 6:22, and Rav Ovadyah in Kol Sinai (Koshair #5) rule that some permit even if the single knot is meant to last but says it preferable to be stringent if the knot is meant to last 7 days. </ref>
 
# Someone doing the wrapping of an Ashkenaz Sefer Torah (Gelilah) and has to tie a sash around the Torah, it's preferable to just wrap the sash around the Torah and tuck in the end, however, if that's not possible then some are lenient to tie a bow on top of a single knot <Ref> Sh"t Tzitz Eliezer 7:29, Shalmat Chaim 185, Beir Moshe 6:55.  </ref> while others are strict unless one is planning on untying it within 24 hours. <ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 15:53 (in new editions 15:56) is strict unless one is planning to untie it within 24 hours, however, in the footnote (15:188) he quotes Rav Shlomo Zalman who said that the minhag is to be lenient.</ref>
 
# Someone doing the wrapping of an Ashkenaz Sefer Torah (Gelilah) and has to tie a sash around the Torah, it's preferable to just wrap the sash around the Torah and tuck in the end, however, if that's not possible then some are lenient to tie a bow on top of a single knot <Ref> Sh"t Tzitz Eliezer 7:29, Shalmat Chaim 185, Beir Moshe 6:55.  </ref> while others are strict unless one is planning on untying it within 24 hours. <ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 15:53 (in new editions 15:56) is strict unless one is planning to untie it within 24 hours, however, in the footnote (15:188) he quotes Rav Shlomo Zalman who said that the minhag is to be lenient.</ref>
 
# It is permissible to tie a necktie on [[Shabbat]] if one usually unties it within 24 hours. However if one doesn't usually untie it within 24 hours, one should tie it from before [[Shabbat]] and put it on and take it off by just tightening and loosening the side which goes around the neck, however, one shouldn't untie it on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 15:58 (in new editions 15:62) permits tying a necktie on [[Shabbat]] if one usually unties it within 24 hours. In the footnote 15:208 he quotes Rav Shlomo Zalman. Similarly, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 795-6) permits as long as one usually unties it after wearing it. See the footnote (Koshair #42) where he quotes Rav Reuven Feinstein who quotes his father Rav Moshe Feinstein that it would be permitted even if one doesn't usually untie it. </ref>
 
# It is permissible to tie a necktie on [[Shabbat]] if one usually unties it within 24 hours. However if one doesn't usually untie it within 24 hours, one should tie it from before [[Shabbat]] and put it on and take it off by just tightening and loosening the side which goes around the neck, however, one shouldn't untie it on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 15:58 (in new editions 15:62) permits tying a necktie on [[Shabbat]] if one usually unties it within 24 hours. In the footnote 15:208 he quotes Rav Shlomo Zalman. Similarly, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 795-6) permits as long as one usually unties it after wearing it. See the footnote (Koshair #42) where he quotes Rav Reuven Feinstein who quotes his father Rav Moshe Feinstein that it would be permitted even if one doesn't usually untie it. </ref>
  
 
==Single knot==
 
==Single knot==
# It is forbidden to tie a single knot with one string onto itself. <Ref> Rama (317:1) quoting the Hagot Alfasi, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (in the new edition 15:52) </ref>
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# It is forbidden to tie a single knot with one string onto itself. <Ref> Rama (317:1) quoting the Hagot Alfasi, Kitzur S"A 80:45, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (in the new edition 15:52) </ref>
 
## In situations where it's common to tie a double knot such as the last knot of a tzitzit fringe one may tie a single knot. <ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (in the new edition 15:53) </ref>
 
## In situations where it's common to tie a double knot such as the last knot of a tzitzit fringe one may tie a single knot. <ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (in the new edition 15:53) </ref>
 
# It is permitted to tie a single knot in two strands of string even if it is tight and meant never to be undone. <Ref>S”A HaRav 317:1, Yalkut Yosef (317:11, [[Shabbat]], vol 2, pg 562), The Shabbos Home (Rabbi Simcha Cohen, vol 1, chap 13, pg 207) </ref>
 
# It is permitted to tie a single knot in two strands of string even if it is tight and meant never to be undone. <Ref>S”A HaRav 317:1, Yalkut Yosef (317:11, [[Shabbat]], vol 2, pg 562), The Shabbos Home (Rabbi Simcha Cohen, vol 1, chap 13, pg 207) </ref>
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== Double knots==
 
== Double knots==
# According to Ashkenazim it is totally forbidden to tie a tight double knot <Ref> Rama (317:1) quoting the Smag, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (in the new edition 15:52), 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 792) </ref>, however, the Sephardic custom is to be lenient even regarding a tight double knot if one intends to untie it within 7 days and one who is stirct will be blessed. <ref>Yalkut Yosef (317:8) says that some disagree with the Rama and permit even a double knot as long as it’s not Kesher Shel Kayama according to the Rosh (only Kayama is a factor, not Uman) and concludes the Minhag is to permit and the stringent one will be blessed. But in a case of need there’s no need to be strict. Those who are stringent will be blessed. See also Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 8:45 and Rav Poalim O”C 2:44.  </ref>
+
# According to Ashkenazim it is totally forbidden to tie a tight double knot <Ref> Rama (317:1) quoting the Smag, Kitzur S"A 80:45, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (in the new edition 15:52), 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 792) </ref>, however, the Sephardic custom is lenient even regarding a tight double knot if one intends to untie it within 7 days and one who is stirct will be blessed. <ref>Yalkut Yosef (317:8) says that some disagree with the Rama and permit even a double knot as long as it’s not Kesher Shel Kayama according to the Rosh (only Kayama is a factor, not Uman) and concludes the Minhag is to permit and the stringent one will be blessed. But in a case of need there’s no need to be strict. Those who are stringent will be blessed. See also Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 8:45 and Rav Poalim O”C 2:44.  </ref>
 
# It is permitted to tie a loose double knot if it’s usually not meant to last 24 hours and this time specifically it's also not meant to last 24 hours. <Ref> Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 15:52 (in new edition 15:55), The Shabbos Home (Rabbi Simcha Cohen, vol 1, chap 13, pg 208) </ref> For example, it’s permissible to tie a double knot for a belt (gartel) or sash (tichel) if it’s going to be untied in 24 hours since it’s not meant to be tight. <Ref> Shaarei Teshuva (317:1), Tzitz Eliezer 16:10, Menuchat Ahava 14:5, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 793) </ref>  
 
# It is permitted to tie a loose double knot if it’s usually not meant to last 24 hours and this time specifically it's also not meant to last 24 hours. <Ref> Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 15:52 (in new edition 15:55), The Shabbos Home (Rabbi Simcha Cohen, vol 1, chap 13, pg 208) </ref> For example, it’s permissible to tie a double knot for a belt (gartel) or sash (tichel) if it’s going to be untied in 24 hours since it’s not meant to be tight. <Ref> Shaarei Teshuva (317:1), Tzitz Eliezer 16:10, Menuchat Ahava 14:5, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 793) </ref>  
 
# If unintentionally one pulled the bow-knot of the shoelaces and it became a double knot, one may untie it. <Ref> Mishnat Halachot 3:38, Rav Ovadyah in Kol Sinai (Koshair 3:5), Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 15:56 (in new editions 15:60) </ref>
 
# If unintentionally one pulled the bow-knot of the shoelaces and it became a double knot, one may untie it. <Ref> Mishnat Halachot 3:38, Rav Ovadyah in Kol Sinai (Koshair 3:5), Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 15:56 (in new editions 15:60) </ref>

Revision as of 04:53, 26 April 2012

The Basics of Koshair

Bibical prohibition

  1. The Melacha of Koshair is the binding two pliable items by intertwining them such as through a firm knot or twining threads into rope. [1]
  2. A knot that’s forbidden on a Torah level is one that is both (1) professional and (2) is meant to be permanent. [2]

Rabbinic prohibition

  1. A knot that is a professional knot but isn't meant to be permanent or a permanent know which isn't professional is forbidden on a Rabbinic level. [3] Some hold that a knot which is permanent even if it's not professional is Biblical prohibited. [4]

Permissible knots

  1. A knot that’s not profession and doesn't have any degree of permanence is permissible to tie. A loose knot which isn't meant to last more than 24 hours is permissible. [5] Some authorities permit even up to 7 days. [6]
  2. Even if you personally intend to leave it less than 24 hours, if it’s a knot sometimes left permanently by people it’s forbidden Rabbinically to prevent confusion between temporary and permanent knots. [7]

Tightening

  1. Any knot which is forbidden to tie is also forbidden to tighten. [8]
  2. For example, one may not tighten the double knot of the tzitzit or talit if it became loose. [9]

Untying

  1. Any knot that’s permitted to tie is permitted to untie. [10]

A bow

  1. A bow-knot, slipknot, or a single-knot isn’t a true Kesher-bind and is permissible even if it does remain in place for a while. [11] For example: a ribbon on a gift, a single bind on a shopping bag or garbage liner.
  2. It is permitted to tie a slip knot or bow without a underlying knot even if it is tight and meant never to be undone. [12]
  3. After tying a bow knot (a bow on top of a single knot), as is common when tying one's shoes, one may not tie a second bow on top of the bow knot. [13]

A bow on top of a single knot

  1. According to Ashkenazim, it is permissible to tie one's shoelaces or a decorative ribbon on a blouse with a bow on top of a single knot (initial winding) only if it’s meant to be untied within 24 hours. [14] However, if one doesn't usually untie it within 24 hours (and manages to slip one's foot in and out) it would be forbidden to tie one's shoes on Shabbat. [15]According to Sephardim it is permissible even if it isn't meant to be untied within 24 hours, yet it's preferable to make sure to untie it within 7 days. [16]
  2. Someone doing the wrapping of an Ashkenaz Sefer Torah (Gelilah) and has to tie a sash around the Torah, it's preferable to just wrap the sash around the Torah and tuck in the end, however, if that's not possible then some are lenient to tie a bow on top of a single knot [17] while others are strict unless one is planning on untying it within 24 hours. [18]
  3. It is permissible to tie a necktie on Shabbat if one usually unties it within 24 hours. However if one doesn't usually untie it within 24 hours, one should tie it from before Shabbat and put it on and take it off by just tightening and loosening the side which goes around the neck, however, one shouldn't untie it on Shabbat. [19]

Single knot

  1. It is forbidden to tie a single knot with one string onto itself. [20]
    1. In situations where it's common to tie a double knot such as the last knot of a tzitzit fringe one may tie a single knot. [21]
  2. It is permitted to tie a single knot in two strands of string even if it is tight and meant never to be undone. [22]
  3. It is permitted to tie a single knot and then tuck in the ends of the string so that it doesn’t come out only if it is menat to be undone within 24 hours. [23]
  4. One may not add a second knot on top of a preexisting single knot,[24] nor may one add a third knot onto a double knot in order to tighten it. [25]

Double knots

  1. According to Ashkenazim it is totally forbidden to tie a tight double knot [26], however, the Sephardic custom is lenient even regarding a tight double knot if one intends to untie it within 7 days and one who is stirct will be blessed. [27]
  2. It is permitted to tie a loose double knot if it’s usually not meant to last 24 hours and this time specifically it's also not meant to last 24 hours. [28] For example, it’s permissible to tie a double knot for a belt (gartel) or sash (tichel) if it’s going to be untied in 24 hours since it’s not meant to be tight. [29]
  3. If unintentionally one pulled the bow-knot of the shoelaces and it became a double knot, one may untie it. [30]
  4. One can untie a double knot that is made on a candy bag given out at shul for a simcha. [31]
  5. One may tie a bandage on a wound with a loose double knot if it is meant to be untied within 24 hours. If it is meant to last for more than 24 hours but less than 7 days, one should use a adhesive bandage or a bow knot, however, if that isn't possible then it's permissible. [32]
  6. One may tie a head covering with a loose double knot as long as one usually unties it everyday. However, if one usually removes it within untying the knot then it's forbidden to tie it even if this time one's intent is to untie within 24 hours. [33]

Wrapping a string

  1. It is permitted to wrap a string around an object and then tuck the ends of the string in even if it is meant to be left permanently. [34]

Twist ties

  1. Some authorities forbid using wire twist ties to close bags unless one plans to undo it within 24 hours. [35] However, others permit. [36] It is praiseworthy to avoid using them if they will remain undone for more than 24 hours. [37]

Fixing clothing

  1. Socks or gloves that are tied together should be detached before Shabbat, but if one forgot one should untie it but ripe it so as to destroy the string. [38]
  2. One can take out the pins put into shirts in packaging to keep it from wrinkling. [39]
  3. It’s totally permitted to thread new laces into shoes to replace old laces but it’s not permitted if the shoe was never laced. [40]

References

  1. Mishna Brurah(317:34) quoting the Rambam, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 51:52
  2. Shulchan Aruch (317:1) in the opinion of the Rambam and Rif
  3. Shulchan Aruch (317:1) according to the Rambam and Rif, Mishna Brurah (intro to 317)
  4. The Rama (317:1) quoting the opinion of Rashi and Rosh
  5. The Rama 317:1 quoting Tur and Mordechai; Mishna Brurah (317:6) explains it as anything less than 24 hours.
  6. Rama also quotes Kol Bo and Hagot Maymoniyot. Yalkut Yosef (317:6) writes that Sephardim hold like this opinion.
  7. Magan Avraham (317:20), Kol Sinai (Koshair #3)
  8. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 15:50 (in new editions 15:53), Kesot HaShulchan (Siman 123, at the end of note 4), Sh"t Az Nidabru 3:22, Sh"t Bear Moshe 6:3
  9. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 799)
  10. Rama 317:1
  11. Shulchan Aruch (317:5) and implied by Rama (317:1). Kitzur S"A 80:45 and Yalkut Yosef (317:11) agree.
  12. Shulchan Aruch (317:5), Biur Halacha 317:5, Yalkut Yosef (317:11, Shabbat, vol 2, pg 562), The Shabbos Home (Rabbi Simcha Cohen, vol 1, chap 13, pg 207)
  13. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 798)
  14. Shulchan Aruch (317:5) rules that a bow-knot isn’t a Kesher, on this the Rama adds that a bow on a single knot is permissible. The Mishna Brurah (317:29) qualifies this that it’s only where the single knot isn’t meant to last (more than 24 hours). Kitzur S"A 80:45, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 15:53 (in new edition 15:56), 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 798), and the Shabbos Home (Rabbi Simcha Cohen, vol 1, chap 13, pg 207) concur with the Mishna Brurah.
  15. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 798)
  16. Yalkut Yosef(317:11), Az Nidabru 6:22, and Rav Ovadyah in Kol Sinai (Koshair #5) rule that some permit even if the single knot is meant to last but says it preferable to be stringent if the knot is meant to last 7 days.
  17. Sh"t Tzitz Eliezer 7:29, Shalmat Chaim 185, Beir Moshe 6:55.
  18. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 15:53 (in new editions 15:56) is strict unless one is planning to untie it within 24 hours, however, in the footnote (15:188) he quotes Rav Shlomo Zalman who said that the minhag is to be lenient.
  19. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 15:58 (in new editions 15:62) permits tying a necktie on Shabbat if one usually unties it within 24 hours. In the footnote 15:208 he quotes Rav Shlomo Zalman. Similarly, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 795-6) permits as long as one usually unties it after wearing it. See the footnote (Koshair #42) where he quotes Rav Reuven Feinstein who quotes his father Rav Moshe Feinstein that it would be permitted even if one doesn't usually untie it.
  20. Rama (317:1) quoting the Hagot Alfasi, Kitzur S"A 80:45, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (in the new edition 15:52)
  21. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (in the new edition 15:53)
  22. S”A HaRav 317:1, Yalkut Yosef (317:11, Shabbat, vol 2, pg 562), The Shabbos Home (Rabbi Simcha Cohen, vol 1, chap 13, pg 207)
  23. The Shabbos Home (Rabbi Simcha Cohen, vol 1, chap 13, pg 207-8)
  24. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (in the new edition 15:53)
  25. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (in the new edition 15:53), 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 799)
  26. Rama (317:1) quoting the Smag, Kitzur S"A 80:45, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (in the new edition 15:52), 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 792)
  27. Yalkut Yosef (317:8) says that some disagree with the Rama and permit even a double knot as long as it’s not Kesher Shel Kayama according to the Rosh (only Kayama is a factor, not Uman) and concludes the Minhag is to permit and the stringent one will be blessed. But in a case of need there’s no need to be strict. Those who are stringent will be blessed. See also Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 8:45 and Rav Poalim O”C 2:44.
  28. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 15:52 (in new edition 15:55), The Shabbos Home (Rabbi Simcha Cohen, vol 1, chap 13, pg 208)
  29. Shaarei Teshuva (317:1), Tzitz Eliezer 16:10, Menuchat Ahava 14:5, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 793)
  30. Mishnat Halachot 3:38, Rav Ovadyah in Kol Sinai (Koshair 3:5), Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 15:56 (in new editions 15:60)
  31. Toldot Yitzchak O”C 2:11
  32. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (in new editions 15:55)
  33. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (in new editions 15:55)
  34. Rama 651:1, The Shabbos Home (Rabbi Simcha Cohen, vol 1, chap 13, pg 208)
  35. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 14:9 and (15 note 166, in the new edition note 174) quoting Rav Shlomo Zalman
  36. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, Melechat Koshair note 54) quoting Rav Moshe Feinstein
  37. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 800)
  38. Shemirat Shabbat Kahilchata 15:63 in name of Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach, Az Nidabru 1:58.
  39. Shemirat Shabbat Kahilchata 15:64 in name of Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach, Bier Moshe 1:22.
  40. Rav Ovadya Yosef in the Haskama of Netiv Mitzvot, Mayim Chaim Meshash O”C 1:147, Bier Moshe 2:20(2),6:59, Tefilah LeMoshe 1:58.