Difference between revisions of "Korbanot"
Latest revision as of 22:07, 30 June 2020
Although commonly Minyanim begin Shacharit from Hodu or Rabbi Yishmael, there is a significant portion of the daily prayers that must be recited before then, colloquially known as "Korbanot." This includes the Parsha of the Akeidah, assorted Bakashot, Parsha of the Tamid, Ketoret, Baraita of the Ketoret, the Perek of Mishnayot from Masechet Zevachim known as Eizehu Mekoman, and the baraita of Rabbi Yishmael.
- 1 General Obligation to Say Korbanot
- 2 Position for Korbanot
- 3 Timing
- 4 Specific Parts of Korbanot
- 5 Sources
General Obligation to Say Korbanot
- Reciting Parshat Tamid is considered to be an obligation by many poskim. However, the recital of the other sections of Korbanot are not of Biblical or rabbinic obligation and nonetheless are obligatory because they are the minhag. Others say that there's no obligation to recite them, nonetheless, it is proper to do so.
Someone who Doesn't Have Time
- For someone who doesn't have enough time to recite all of the Korbanot, here is a list of the order of importance: Lefikach Anachnu Chayavim until Mekadesh Shemo BeRabim, Yehi Ratzon… SheTerachem, Parshat Tamid, Parshat Ketoret until Rabbi Natan HaBavli, Yehi Ratzon SheYehe Siach Sifatenu… KeHilchato.
- The korbanot take precedence over Mizmor Chanukat Habayit.
- Parshat Tamid and Ketoret take precedence over most of Pesukei Dzimrah besides for Ashrei, Hallelu Et Hashem Min Hashamayim, and Hallelu Kel Bikodsho. If there's less time, Tamid takes precedence over Ketoret.
- Some say that a Talmid Chacham doesn't have to recite the paragraph of the Akeda, while most disagree.
- Some say that someone who learns Gemara anyway can skip Aizhu Mekoman and the Briatta of Rabbi Yishmael. Most others disagree.
- The paragraphs of the korbanot, including the Olah, Mincha, Shlamim, etc do not have to be recited on Shabbat but can be. A Talmid Chacham should preferably learn the parsha instead. Either way, the practice today is that no one recites these paragraphs at all and they are replaced with the recital of Eizhu Mekoman.
- Women are not obligated to say Korbanot, but it is proper to say them just like men do.
- A mourner does not say the Korbanot; however, he should say Parshat HaTamid if he usually does.
Position for Korbanot
- One may sit during Korbanot; however, it is preferable to stand, especially for Parshat HaTamid.
Specific Parts of Korbanot
- After Birchot HaShachar and putting on Tefillin, one recites parsha of the Akeda followed by the Ribbono Shel Olam Keshem SheKavash. 
- The Sephardic custom is that everyone should recite parshat Akeda even a Talmid Chacham.
- The parsha of Akeda can and should be recited on Shabbat.
- It is recommended to say Parshat Akedah and Parshat HaMaan before Korbanot, however, some say Parshat HaMaan after tefillah 
- Today it isn't the Sephardic minhag to recite the Parsha of the Maan each day.
- The Sephardic minhag is to say the pasuk of VeShachat Otto after the Parsha of the Akeda. 
V'ani Brov Chasdecha
- There is a minhag to recite the pasuk V'ani Brov Chasdecha (ואני ברוב חסדך אבא ביתך אשתחוה אל היכל קדשך ביראתך) after entering Shul. Some recite בבית אלהים נהלך ברגש before entering Shul.
- One of the most important pieces in the korbanot section is the Parshat HaTamid. Some poskim write that klal Yisrael accepted upon themselves to say this paragraph daily. The opinion of Rabbenu Yonah is that saying Parshat HaTamid is considered a chiyuv deoritta.
- One should read the Parshat HaTamid everyday in place of the Korbanot that we unfortunately cannot bring nowadays. 
- Some say to stand while reading the Parshat HaTamid especially when it is read out loud in the Tzibbur.  The Aruch HaShulchan says that a Kohen needs to stand when reciting Parshat haTamid but not a Levi nor a Yisroel 
Parshat Kiyor, Trumat Hadeshen, and Seder Maaracha
- Other sections of korbanot which some have the minhag to say include Parshat HaKiyor, Trumat HaDeshen, Parshat Ketoret, and Seder HaMaaracha which begins with the words Abaye Havey Mesader.
- Among Sephardim who are careful about this minhag it is incumbent upon each person to fulfill this minhag and not neglect it even if they are a Talmid Chacham who would be learning otherwise.
Abaye Hava Omer
- The minhag is also to say the order of services in the Bet Hamikdash in the paragraph “Abaye Hava Omer” before Eizhu Mekoman. Anyone who knows how to learn should learn the meaning of the text from the Gemara so that reading it counts as actual sacrifices. 
- The rabbis established saying the perek of Eizahu Mekoman and Braita of Rabbi Yishmael in order that one learn Mishna and Gemara every day.
- After Parshat HaTamid and Ketoret, one should say the perek of Eizehu Mekoman and the Braita of Rabbi Yishamael to fulfill learning Torah, Mishna, and Gemara daily. One must understand what one is saying when one reads Eizehu Mekoman and the Braita of Rabbi Yishmael.
- It is a praiseworthy and proper practice to also recite the paragraphs of korbanot each day including: Olah (Vayikra 1:1-7), Mincha (Vayikra 2:1-13), Shlamim (Vayikra 3:1-17), Chatat (Vayikra 4:1) and Asham.
- The obligation to say Korbanot really includes saying the Parshat HaOlah, Parshat HaMincha, Parshat HaTodah, Parshat HaShlamim, Parshat HaChatat, and Parshat HaAsham. However, the minhag is to fulfill one’s obligation with just reading the perek of Eizhu Mekoman.
- For those who recite these paragraphs of korbanot, one is allowed to say the Parshiot of Korbanot on Shabbat and Yom Tov but one should refrain from saying the Yehee Ratzon.
- Even on Shabbat and Yom Tov, for those who recite these paragraphs of korbanot, a person should say them. However, for a Talmid Chacham it is preferable to use his time to learn the Parsha of that week as opposed to recite these paragraphs of korbanot on Shabbat.
- See Kaf HaChaim (Orach Chaim 48) at length who discusses each section and its meanings.
- Or Letzion 2:7:1, Byitzchak Yikareh 1:5. The footnotes to Or Letzion emphasize that one may not neglect the korbanot for no reason. Furthermore, Rav Moshe Eliyahu in Maamar Mordechai 2:4 writes that since it is the minhag to recite the korbanot for generations it is forbidden to skip them. Those who do have nothing to rely upon.
- Peninei Halacha (ch. 13). Rav Chaim Kanievsky (Daat Noteh 1:66) also held that saying korbanot besides tamid isn't an obligation but rather something proper to do. The footnotes say that the source for this is that the Rambam doesn't have korbanot besides tamid.
- Avnei Yashfeh (pg 118) based on Rav Poalim 2:4
- Siach Tefilla (pg 637), Peninei Halacha (ch. 13)
- Avnei Yishfeh p. 119 citing Rav Elyashiv. In the footnote he adds that this is supported by Piskei Teshuva 4 citing Pitchei Shaarim 6 and Maharsha Sukkah 53a. Also, he notes that if there's even less time one can recite the psukim of the Ketoret without the recital of the Tanu Rabbanan.
- Piskei Teshuvot 1:16 writes that since the Shulchan Aruch 1:5 only stated that it is proper for a person to recite the parsha of Akeda, Maan, Aseret Hadibrot, and paragraphs of Korbanot and it isn't a formal obligation, someone who “makes Torah his occupation” and does not waste time can skip them and learn instead. (He bases this on the Mishna Brurah 1:12 and Kaf Hachaim 1:31 who are not dealing with this and rather dealing with non-standard additions to davening that a Talmid Chacham is exempt from.)
- Yalkut Yosef 1:26 writes that a Talmid Chacham and certainly a Yeshiva student should say Parshat Akeda. Or Letzion 2:7:1 seems to agree. Rav Dovid Yosef in Orchot Maran 1:3 records that it was the practice of Rav Ovadia Yosef to recite all of the Korbanot, from the Akeda until and including Rabbi Yishmael, as is printed in the siddurim, each and every day. Rav Ovadia added that it is proper for a Talmid Chacham to do so.
- Tefilla KeHilchata (pg 185) quotes Rav Elyashiv saying that someone who learns anyway saying Aizhu Mekoman and Briatta DeRabbi Yishmael is proper but not obligatory.
- Or Letzion 2:7:1 writes that even a Talmid Chacham isn't exempt from Aizhu Mekoman since it isn't just another section of Torah; it is a fulfillment of bringing Korbanot with our lips. He adds that the Briatta of Rabbi Yishmael also has lofty meanings attached to it and therefore even a Talmid Chacham should recite it. Additionally, Orchot Maran 1:3 clarifies that Rav Ovadia Yosef himself used to say Aizhu Mekoman and Rabbi Yishmael.
- See Halichot Shlomo (Tefillah, chap 6 note 20, pg 76-7) where the practice of Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach is recorded. He would arrive at shul 10 minutes early and say Birchot HaShachar, the paragraph before Akeda (Elokenu VeElokey until KaKatuv Betoratach), LeOlam Yehe Adam (until the end), Korbanot, and Ketoret. [It seems clear that he only said the introductory paragraph to the Akeda and not the Parshat Akeda itself.]
- Magen Avraham 1:11 and Mishna Brurah 1:17 quote the Shlah that one can say the specific paragraphs of Olah, Mincha, Shlamim, etc on Shabbat but there is no obligation to do so. Therefore, a Talmid Chacham should preferably study the parsha of the day instead of saying these Korbanot. However, the Maharam Nigrin (quoted by the Knesset HaGedolah 1:1) says that the Korbanot do not need to be said on Shabbat.
- Halacha Brurah 1:15, Piskei Teshuvot 1:16
- In the discussion of women making Birchot HaTorah the poskim bring up the idea that women should make Birchot HaTorah as they are obligated in some portions of Torah. The Agur (quoted by the Bet Yosef 47) includes the Parshiot HaKorbanot on the list because tefillah was in place of the Korbanot and women are obligated in tefillah. This is quoted by the Levush (47), Taz (47:10; he only mentions Parshat HaTamid), and Magen Avraham 47:14. Shulchan Aruch Harav 47:10 writes that women only have to say Parshat HaTamid. Accordingly, Sh”t Lev Chaim 1:15 and Malbim in Artzot HaChaim (Lev HaAretz 6) write that women must say the Korbanot. However, Mor UKesiah (47) writes that women are not obligated in Korbanot and they are only obligated in tefillah since that is a request from Hashem. Sh”t Yosef Ometz 67 and Halacha Brurah 1:17 write that it is not an absolute chiyuv on women. Mechezeh Eliyahu 1:14 writes that the minhag is that women don't say korbanot and he justifies that practice.
- Mishna Brurah 1:17
- BeYitzchak Yikareh on Mishna Brurah 1:17 quoting Rav Shlomo Zalman writes that only if a person regularly says Parashat HaTamid should he say it as a mourner.
- The Olat Tamid 1:8 writes that the Korbanot should be said standing since the actual Korbanot in the Bet HaMikdash were brought standing. This is brought down in the Magen Avraham 48:1, Yad Aharon (on the Tur 1:3; in name of the Arizal), Emek Bracha (Siman 18), and Be'er Heitev 1:12. However, Shalmei Tzibur (pg 62a) writes that it is from the Arizal that one should sit. The Mateh Yehuda 1:8 concludes that it is no more than a chumra, since the requirements of Korbanot only encompass the general laws of Korbanot such as saying them during the day, but the actual details carried out by the cohen are not applicable to our saying the Korbanot. To this, many Acharonim agree, including Tevuot Shor (pg 109a), Eliyah Rabbah 1:10, Birkei Yosef 1:14, Machzik Bracha 48, Kesher Gudal 7:22, Maamar Mordechai 102:2, Kisei Eliyahu 48, Sh”t Lev Chaim 1:13, Ruach Chaim 1:32, and Halacha Brurah 1:17. Mishna Brurah 48:1 writes in name of the Pri Megadim that one only needs to stand for Parshat HaTamid.
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 1:6 writes that the parshiyot of korabnot should only be recited by day. Magen Avraham 1:10 points out that the parsha of the Kiyor and Trumat Hadeshen may be recited even before Olot Hashachar. Rabbi Akiva Eiger disagrees with the Magen Avraham on the point of Trumat Hadeshen. Mishna Brurah 1:17 rules like the Magen Avraham.
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 1:5 writes that one should recite the parsha of the Akeda. The reasons given in Bet Yosef 1:5 and the achronim is to pray to Hashem to remember the Akeda and also inculcate the message of subjugating the Yetzer HaRah like Avraham Avinu.
- Yalkut Yosef 1:21, 1:41 writes that our minhag is to say Parshat Akeda but it is not our minhag to say Parshat HaMaan or Aseret HaDibrot. Mishna Brurah 1:13 writes that one can say it on Shabbat like Korbanot and Halacha Brurah 1:17 writes that such is the minhag.
- Piskei Teshuvot 1:16 cites the Or Tzadikim, Ateret Tzvi Bahar, Shulchan Tahor 1:7, Nemukei Orach Chaim 1:3 who say that one shouldn't recite the parsha of Akeda on Shabbat. vs Likutei Mahariach who says to say it even on Shabbat. Piskei Teshuvot also quotes Mateh Efraim 619:34 who writes that everyone agrees on Yom Kippur one should recite parshat Akeda.
- Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 1:5 writes that it is good to say Parshat Akedah, Parshat HaMaan, and Aseret HaDibrot. Tefilla KeHilchata (9:68 pg 180) and Ishei Yisrael (5:31, pg 50) quote this Shulchan Aruch saying that it is good to say these parshiot as halacha.
- Mishna Brurah 1:13 explains that these should be said before Korbanot. However, the Chida in Machzik Bracha 1:8 writes that the Arizal did not say these three parshiot. However, Yafeh LeLev 1:24 quotes the Tov Ayin who explains that the Arizal only did not say them prior to tefillah but would say them afterwards. Piskei Teshuvot 1:16 writes that the minhag is to say Parshat HaMaan after tefillah. Halacha Brurah 1:13 also quotes the custom of saying Parashat HaMaan.
- Yalkut Yosef 1:21, 1:41
- Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chaim 1:8) writes that that together with the Parshat Korbanot one should recite the pasuk of VeShachat Otto (Vayikra 1:11). In addition to this, the Chida (Kesher Gudal 24:3), Ben Ish Chai (Od Yosef Chai, Mikeitz 2e), and Halacha Brurah 1:12 write that the Sephardic Minhag is say this pasuk after the parshat Akeda (in addition to saying it with the parshat Korbanot). However, Kaf HaChaim Orach Chaim 1:30 writes in the name of the Rashash and a local Minhag that does not say this pasuk.
- Magen Avraham 47:1, Mishna Brurah 47:1, Ben Ish Chai Shana Rishona Vayera n. 5
- Magen Avraham 47:1, Mishna Brurah 47:1
- Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 1:9
- S”A HaRav 48:1 writes that Klal Yisrael accepted upon themselves as an obligation to say Parshat HaTamid. BeYitzchak Yikareh 1:5 writes that Korbanot are voluntary, but Parshat Tamid, Aizhu Mekoman, and Briatta DeRabbi Yishmael are obligatory.
- Rabbenu Yonah Brachot 5a s.v. lo
- Rama (intro to 48), Mishna Brurah 48:1
- Mishna Brurah 48:1
- Aruch HaShulchan 1:26
- Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 1:9 writes that some have the minhag to say Parshat HaKiyor, Trumat HaDeshen, Tamid, Parshat Ketoret and how it is made. Rama Orach Chaim 50:1 writes some say Seder HaMaaracha (Abaye Havey…). Mishna Brurah 50:1 explains this minhag as a fulfillment of studying the topic of korbanot daily.
- Or LeTzion 2:7:1 writes that since the minhag of Sephardim is to recite the entire standard text of the "Korbanot," which is based on the Arizal. It includes Akeda, Korbanot, Ketoret, Eizhu Mekoman, and Briatta of Rabbi Yishmael. None of it should not be skipped or neglected without a reason. Even a Talmid Chacham should recite them and he isn't exempt since the Mishnayot of Eizhu Mekoman take the place of Korbanot. Indeed Or Letzion thinks that certain sections of Korbanot take precedence over Psukei Dzimra.
- Halacha Brurah 1:18
- Maamar Mordechai 50, Mishna Brurah 48:1
- Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 50:1, See BeYitzchak Yikarei siman 1 says that the Korbanot are minhag except these and parshat tamid are an obligation.
- Shulchan Aruch 50:1. The Ritva Berachot 4b thinks they fulfills the obligation of "Lo Yamush" along with Ashrei.
- Mishna Brurah 50:2 writes clearly that in order to fulfill learning Torah through Eizehu Mekoman and the Braita of Rabbi Yishmael one must understand what one is saying and if one does not know one should learn it.
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 1:5
- Tur and Shulchan Aruch 1:5 write that there is an obligation to say the Parshat Korbanot including the parshiot of Olah, Mincha, Todah, Shlamim, Chatat, and Asham. Mishna Brurah 1:14 adds Parshat Todah and Parshat Nesachim after Olah, Shlamim, and Todah. Rav Avigdor Nevensal (BeYitzchak Yikareh 1:5) writes that it is only a minhag and not an obligation to say all of the parshiyot of korbanot.
- Halacha Brurah 1:15 quotes the Sh”t Lev Chaim 1:11 and Sh”t Binei Tzion 1:6 who hold that saying Eizhu Mekoman satisfies saying Korbanot and concludes that such is the minhag. Piskei Teshuvot 1:16 agrees that such is the minhag.
- However, Yalkut Yosef 1:25-6 writes that it is a good minhag to say Parshat HaKorbanot (besides Aizhu Mekoman). Also, Tefilla KeHilchata (9:71-6 pg 181-2) and Ishei Yisrael (5:33, pg 51) quote the Shulchan Aruch that one should say Parshat HaKorbanot as halacha. (See also Halichot Shlomo (chap 6, note 24, pg 78) which quotes Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach as not approving of those who became weak in saying Parshat HaKorbanot.)
- Mishna Brurah 1:17 in name of the Shlah. Machzik Bracha 1:11 writes that the minhag is not to say Korbanot on Shabbat.
- (1) Knesset HaGedolah (on Tur 1:1) writes in name of the Shetei Yadot that one should say Korbanot on Shabbat and adds that such is the Minhag. Pekudat Elazar (Siman 1), Halacha Brurah 1:12, and Yalkut Yosef (Sherit Yosef 1 pg 9) write that the minhag is to say Korbanot on Shabbat.
- Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 1:5 writes that one should say the Aseret HaDibrot daily. The Rama adds that it must be said in private because saying it as a congregation was forbidden by the Rabbis so that the heretics do not say that this is the whole Torah. Mishna Brurah 1:16 adds that an individual may only say it not as part of tefillah and may not establish it among the Brachot. Nonetheless, Chida (Ayin Tov 10) and Halacha Brurah 1:14 write that the minhag is not to say it at all like the Arizal (Hakdama to Shaar HaKavvanot).