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Revision as of 11:44, 4 September 2011 by ChachamY
- There's a dispute whether Havdalah is Deorittah or Derabbanan. 
The order of Havdalah
- The order of the Brachot of Havdalah is Yayin (Hagefen), Besamim, Ner (Meorei HaEsh), Havdalah (Hamavdil). 
- The custom is to add several pesukim prior to Havdalah for a good sign. For the full Ashkenazic text see here. For the full Sephardic text see here. 
- One may not use lemonade for Havdalah. 
Saying Havdalah early
- If one is has an extreme need such as a need to travel to the end of the Techum for the purpose of a mitzvah after Shabbat one may pray Arvit starting from Plag Mincha (ten and three quarter hours into the day). In such a case one may also say Havdalah early but one may not say the Bracha on the candle (Moerei HaEsh). Even in such a case it is certainly forbidden to do Melacha (activity which is forbidden on Shabbat) until Tzet HaCochavim. 
Standing or Sitting for Havdalah
- According to Sephardim, one should sit during Havdalah. However, the Ashkenazic minhag is to stand during Havadalah. 
- There's a dispute whether women are obligated in Havdalah. Nonetheless, women may make the it for themselves. 
Getting benefit from a Jew who didn't make Havdalah
- Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 29:1) writes that the command of "Zachor Et Yom HaShabbat" (Shemot 20:7) includes the positive mitzvahs of Kiddish and Havdalah every week. Other Rishonim that agree with Rambam include Ravi’ah Brachot 3:1, Ritvah as quoted by the Nimukei Yosef Pesachim 55, and Sefer Hachinuch Mitvah 31. However, Tosfot (Tosfot Nazir 4a D"H My Hee in name of Rabbenu Tam) and the Rosh (Sh"t 11:3) hold that Havdalah is Derabbanan. Mishna Brurah 296:1 quotes both opinions and adds that if one said Havdalah in Tefillah the Havdalah on the wine is certainly Derabbanan.
- S"A 296:1
- The Ashkenazic custom is to say the following text before Havdalah: הנה אל ישועתי אבטח ולא אפחד כי עזי וזמרת יה יהוה ויהי לי לישועה: ושאבתם מים בששון ממעיני הישועה: ליהוה הישועה על עמך ברכתך סלה: יהוה צבאות עמנו משגב לנו אלהי יעקב סלה: יהוה צבאות אשרי אדם בטח בך: יהוה הושיעה המלך יעננו ביום קראנו: ליהודים היתה אורה ושמחה וששן ויקר, כן תהיה לנו: כוס ישועות אשא ובשם יהוה אקרא:
- The source for the Ashkenazic text is the following: the Rama 296:1 writes that before the Bracha of Havdalah one should say Yishaya 12:2-3, Ester 8:16, Tehillim 116:13. The Aruch HaShulchan 296:8 adds 4 more pesukim after the ones in Yishaya from Tehillim 3:9, 46:8, 84:13, and 20:10. He also adds that after Ester 8:16 one should say 'כן תהיה לנו'.
- The Sephardic custom is to say the following text before Havdalah: כוס ישועות אשא ובשם ה' אקרא: אנא ה' הושיעה נא אנא ה' הצליחה נא: הצליחנו הצליח דרכינו הצליח לימודינו וכו' ושלח ברכה רוחה והצלחה בכל מעשה ידינו כדכתיב ישא ברכה מאת ה' וצדקה מאלהי ישענו: ליהודים היתה אורה ושמחה וששק ויקר: וכתיב ויהי דוד לכל דרכיו משכיל וה' עמו, כן יהיה עמנו תמיד: ונח מצא חן בעיני ה', כן נמצא חן ושכל טוב בעיני אלוקים ואדם: אלהא דמאיר עננו: ואתם הדבקים בה' אלוקיכם חיים כולכם היום:
- The source for the Sephardic text is the following: Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat, vol 1, pg 449-50) writes that the Sephardic minhag is to say the following order before Havdalah: Tehillim 116:13, 118:25, a prayer beginning with הצליחנו and ending with a Tehillim 24:5, Ester 8:16, Shamuel (vol 1, 18:14), Beresheet 6:8, a prayer beginning with אלהא דמאיר, and Devarim 4:4.
- Sh:t Vayan Avraham (Izrael) Siman 34 (pg 63) writes that he remembers in the holocaust the question arose whether lemonade could be used for Havdalah and he concludes that it just like water and can’t be used for Havdalah.
- S”A 293:3
- Tosfot 43a writes that to be included in Kiddish one should sit and then asks on those who stand during Havadalah because of the same issue. Therefore S"A 296:6 rules that one should sit during Havdalah. However, Rama 296:6 and the Gra (Maaseh Rav pg 103, #150) write that the Ashkenazic practice is to stand for Havdalah. Mishna Brurah 296:27 explains that the reason for the Ashkenazic minhag is to escort the Shabbat queen out and escorting must be done standing. He adds that one can fulfill the obligation of others even when standing because everyone is assembled expressed for that purpose and has Kavana to fulfill their obligation. Rav Moshe Feinstein (Teshuva Siman 3 quoted in back of Radiance of Shabbos) writes that his personal minhag was to sit like his father's minhag but because of the rishonim who hold that one may stand one should not change one's minhag.
- Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 29:1) writes that the Havdalah is a positive command just like Kiddish. Maggid Mishna (Hilchot Shabbat 29:1) implies from the Rambam that women are obligated in Havdalah jus tlike they are obligated in Kiddish. Maggid Mishna suggests that even according to those who argue on the Rambam, women can be obligated if the rabbis instituted Havdalah to be just like Kiddish. Orchot Chaim (Hilchot Havdalah 18; quoted by Bet Yosef 296:8) writes that because there's a dispute whether women are obligated women shouldn't make Havdalah for themselves. Nonetheless, S"A 296:8 rules as Stam (anonymous opinion) that women are obligated in Havdalah. Bach adds that for Ashkenazim there is an additional reason to permit women to make the bracha considering that Ashkenazim allow one to make a bracha even for Mitzvot that one is not obligated in such as lulav. Even though this is stark contrast to the Rama on this topic, the achronim rule like the Bach including the Magan Avraham and Mishna Brurah 296:35. www.bknw.org/pafiledb/pafiledb.php?action=download&id=42