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- The term "Geonim" generally refers to those who lived between the Savoraim and the Rif, though the institution of Geonim did extend beyond then. Some say that the term Gaon is short for "Rosh Yeshivat Gaon Yaakov," while others claim it was reserved for those who were experts in all sixty Masechtot of Shas, corresponding to the Gematria of גאון.
- Works from the times of the Geonim, such as the words of the Halachot Gedolot, Rabbeinu Chananel, and the monograph on Hilchot Tefillin, and claimed by some to be super authoritative, as "the words of the Geonim are tradition" (דבריהם דברי קבלה) in that they had access to the first edition of Talmud Bavli, which was clearer than ours. At the same time, a number of Rishonim poke holes in the work and argue it shouldn't be followed when it contradicts Talmud Bavli.
- Yad Malachi (Klalei HaGeonim 1), Shem HaGedolim (Gedolim, Gimmel Kuntress Acharon 2
- Yad Malachi (Klalei HaGeonim 2, Klalei HaTalmud 150). The Korban Netanel (Klalim 7) writes how the Rosh believed Rabbeinu Chananel's authority by power of Divrei Kabbalah to be superior in Halacha, not just Girsaot. See also Klalei Bahag, Yad Malachi (Klalei HaTalmud 409, Klalei Shear HaMechabrim 25), and Kol HaChaim (Heh 8).