Dosh

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General prohibition

  1. Dash includes removing any earth-grown food from its natural shell or attachment.[1]
  2. Mefarek is a Toldah of Dosh. Mefarek includes squeezing juice from fruit or liquid from a cloth. [2]

Removing peas from a pod

  1. One may not remove peas from an inedible pod on Shabbat. [3]
  2. Peeling fruits (such as oranges or bananas) or vegetables (such as onions or cucumbers) is not considered a violation of Dosh. Nonetheless one should be careful of the conditions of Borer such as only peeling it right before eating and not using a peeler (but one may use a knife or one's hands). [4]
  3. One may not the husk from an ear of corn on Shabbat. [5]

Removing shell of nuts

  1. One may remove the shell of nuts (pecans, brazil nuts, filberts, peanuts) on Shabbat. [6]
  2. One may not remove the outer hull (a thick pulpy layer) of an almond or walnut on Shabbat, however, one may remove the inner hard wood-like shell. [7]
  3. There is a question of removing the outer thin peel of a garlic bulb on Shabbat however most poskim permit and certainly it's permitted to remove the peel around the individual cloves. [8]

Squeezing a fruit

  1. It’s forbidden to squeeze a fruit in order to extract it’s liquid if one squeezes the fruit into a liquid or empty vessel. The prohibition is violated whether it’s done with one’s hand or a utensil. [9] One may not squeeze a fruit into an empty vessel with intent to put solid food in afterwards. [10]
  2. It’s permitted to squeeze a fruit with one’s hand onto a solid food if either the food absorbs the liquid or the liquid is meant to improve the flavor of the food. [11]

Liquids that oozed out themselves

  1. Juice that oozed (by itself) out of fruit, which is specifically designated to be eaten, is permitted to drink. [12]

Squeezing a lemon

  1. For example, it’s permitted to squeeze a lemon on sugar even if one’s intent is to put the sugar in a liquid afterwards, however, there are authorities who are strict on this issue. [13]
  2. It’s permissible to cut a slice of lemon and put it into a drink even though the juice will seep out. [14] Note that if the drink is hot tea its only permissible if it is made in a Kli Shelishi (see Bishul). One may gently stir the tea but one may not press the lemon against the wall of the cup. Additionally, one should cut the lemon directly over the tea. [15]

Squeezing out excess liquid

  1. It’s permitted to squeeze out excess liquid in a food to improve it’s taste if it’s done immediately prior to eating. For example it’s permitted to squeeze a pickled cucumber to remove some of it’s vinegar if one is going to eat the pickle right away. [16]
  2. One may squeeze out latkes from excess vegetable oil if ones intention is to get rid of the oil and it is done right before eating.[17]
  3. It's commendable to refrain from squeezing a piece of meat, fish, or chicken to get rid of excess gravy if the gravy contains water or wine.[18]

Sucking on a fruit

  1. One may suck on any fruit except for grapes even though one is extracting liquid with one's mouth. However, one shouldn’t squeeze the fruit with one’s hand. [19]
  2. It’s permitted to dip bread in a soup or other dip and then suck off the liquid, but it’s preferable to eat a little of the bread with it. [20]

Cutting a grapefruit or watermelon

  1. It’s permitted to cut a grapefruit (or watermelon) even if liquids will ooze out as long as one doesn’t intend specifically to drink the juices rather to eat the fruit and that one doesn’t intentionally doesn’t squeeze the fruit. [21]
  2. One may scrape out grapefruit with a spoon to eat the pulp (the flesh of the fruit) attached to the peel, however, it's forbidden to press the spoon against the pulp in order to extract juices. [22]

Squeezing grapes

  1. It’s preferable not to squeeze grapes even onto solid foods that will absorb the liquid or be improved. [23]
  2. One shouldn’t suck on grapes while holding them in one’s hand, rather one should put the entire grape in one’s mouth, eat (or suck on it) and take out what’s left. [24]
  3. Juice that oozed out of grapes by itself, is forbidden to drink. [25]

Squeezing on Yom Tov

  1. It’s permitted to soak matzah and squeeze out the liquid in preparation to cooking. [26]

Squeezing a liquid out of a cloth

  1. It is forbidden to squeeze any liquid out of any cloth on Shabbat. [27]
  2. If wine spilled on a tablecloth one may not wring out the cloth. If some of the liquid didn't get absorbed one may scoop it off with a spoon if one is careful not to spread the colored wine over a wider area (which is an issue of Tzoveya. [28]

Using a sponge or brush on Shabbat

  1. One may not clean dishes or even gently wipe a countertop with a sponge because gripping the sponge will inevitably cause liquid to be squeezed out where one's fingers grasp the material. However, using a sponge which has a handle or a vinyl back one may gently wipe a countertop but it is still forbidden to wash dishes.[29]
  2. One shouldn't use a dry sponge to wipe up a spill unless the sponge has a handle or vinyl back.[30]
  3. One may not use a wet brush to scrub if the brush's fibers are soft and dense. However, if the fibers are stiff, sparse, and made out of synthetic material one may use that brush for scrubbing. Similarly, a plastic mesh or wire mesh may be used for scrubbing only if the fibers are thin and the netting is widely spaced. However, one may not use a mesh if the fibers are closely packed; for example, one may not use a steel wool pad. To determine whether the fibers are considered dense or sparse one should conduct the following test before Shabbat: Immerse it in water and upon removing it if the water drains out immediately the fibers are considered widely spaced, however, if water stays absorbed it is considered densely spaced.[31]

Baby wipes

  1. Some say that one may use baby wipes to clean a baby if one does it gently and doesn't press down.[32]

References

  1. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 317)
  2. Rashi Shabbat 73b and Rambam Shabbat 21:12 write that Mefarek is a Toldah of Dosh. Rambam 21:12 writes that squeezing fruit is a violation of Mefarek. 39 Melachos (Dosh note 113) quotes Tosfot Ketubot 6a D"H Hay who holds that squeezing a liquid from a cloth is also considered Mefarek.
  3. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 325)
  4. Rama end of 321, Chaye Adam 14:1, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 323-4)
  5. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 327-8) writes that according to some opinions it's forbidden. However, Halachos of Shabbat (Rabbi Eider, chap 8, pg 95) writes that it's forbidden (and bases it on the Maharsham 320:83).
  6. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 324-5)
  7. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 325-6)
  8. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 326)
  9. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:1,2. Squeezing a liquid out of a solid (Sechita) is Mefarek which is a Toldah of the Melacha of Dash (Iglei Tal, Dash #8, Mishna Brurah 320:1).
    • S"A 320:1 writes that it's forbidden to squeeze olives and grapes and the juice which flows from them by itself is forbidden for consumption, however, berries and pomegranates even though they are forbidden to be squeezed the juices from them that flow by itself are permissible if the fruit was meant to be eaten and not be squeezed for the juice, lastly, all other fruit is permissible to squeeze. The Rama 320:1 explains that in places where it's normal to squeeze certain fruits for it's juices it is also forbidden to squeeze like berries and pomegranates. Mishna Brurah 320:5 explains that squeezing berries and pomegranates is forbidden rabbinically because some people squeeze them for the juice like grapes and olives. However, all other fruit in the days of Shulchan Aruch weren't squeezed for juice but rather were eaten and so it would be permissible because the fruit if considered like a solid and extracting one solid from another is permissible.
    • Therefore, the Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (chap 5 note 4) writes that nowadays that it is common to squeeze all fruit for the juice it's forbidden to squeeze any fruit on Shabbat. On the other hand, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 328) lists certain fruits which are rabbinically prohibited to squeeze includes oranges, lemons, grapefruits, apples, pineapples, cherries, strawberries, peaches, plums, pomegranates, and tomatoes. Similarly, Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat, vol 3, 343 and 491) delineates certain fruits which are squeezed for the juices in some places such as grapes, olives, berries, pomegranates, apples, grapefruits, pears, mangoes, tangerines, and pineapples would be forbidden to squeeze on Shabbat, however, fruits which are not squeezed anywhere such as quince or watermelon one may squeeze it on Shabbat. Yalkut Yosef (pg 344) adds that even when it's permissible to squeeze a fruit it may only be done by hand and not with a juicer (tool).
  10. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:5
  11. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:3,7, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 345)
  12. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:11
  13. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:5,6, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 346)
  14. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:2
  15. 39 Mleachos (vol 2, pg 340)
  16. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:8, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 341), Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat vol 3 pg 350)
  17. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 342)
  18. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 342)
  19. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:10, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 339). Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat vol 3 pg 248) and Halichot Olam (vol 4 pg 106) permit even regarding grapes but add that it's a proper practice to refrain.
  20. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:9
  21. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:12, Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat, vol 3, pg 345), 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 340), Rabbi Mansour on Dailyhalacha.com
  22. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 341), Rabbi Mansour on Dailyhalacha.com
  23. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:4
  24. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:10
  25. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:11
  26. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:14
  27. S"A 320:12, 18, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 347)
  28. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 348)
  29. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 348-9)
  30. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 349)
  31. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 349-50)
  32. [Rabbi Mansour on Dailyhalacha.com