Dairy Bread

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Prohibition of Making Dairy Bread

  1. The rabbis enacted a decree that one should not knead dough with milk, and if one does, one may not eat the bread even by itself. The reason given is that one is likely to make a mistake with the bread to perhaps eat the bread with meat. The same applies to meat bread.[1]
  2. If one shapes the bread in a unique way, then one can make dairy bread because people will notice the difference and will not come to make a mistake. Also, if one shapes the dairy bread into small pieces that are eaten at one time, then no leftovers will remain, and there is no possibility for a future mistake.[2]
  3. The prohibition to make dairy or meat bread extends to regular bread cooked in an unclean oven that has meat or milk residue where the bread is placed.[3]
  4. The custom was to make dairy bread for Shavuot and bread with meat fat for Shabbos, since these breads were uniquely shaped and they were to be eaten specifically for the meals they were prepared for.[4]


  1. Pesachim 30a. This Gemara is brought in Rif Chullin 38a. Shulchan Aruch Y"D 97:1.
  2. Shulchan Aruch 97:1. The first leniency is brought by the Rif Chullin 38a where he explains that if one shapes the bread in the shape of an ox, then the bread would be mutar. Rosh Chullin 8:21 brings the opinion of Rashi that if one makes small pieces like small ox shapes of dairy bread, there is no concern that one may make a mistake. There are limitations brought by later authorities. Pitchei Teshuva 97:3 quotes the Maharit who explains that a unique shape is only a leniency for bread made for one's family. However, if the bread is sold in public, there is a concern that the consumers will not understand the meaning of the unique shape. Also, warning the consumers won't work because one may forget to warn them that the bread is dairy. The P"T quotes the Chavot Da'at who says that once the dairy bread is cooked, it is assur, and it is too late to then shape it in a unique way. Also, one cannot cut it up into small pieces and divide it up to many people, since the bread already became forbidden through the cooking process.
  3. Shulchan Aruch 97:1.
  4. Rema 97:1.