The Weekly Halachic Analysis
During the winter, we pray for rain by inserting the words “VeTen Tal UMatar Livracha” in Birkat HaShanim. If one forgot to say “VeTen Tal UMatar Livracha” and remembers after concluding the bracha of Mivarech HaShanim before beginning the next bracha, the Ravyah (cited by Rosh Tanit 1:1) writes that one should insert the words “VeTen Tal UMatar Levracha” right there. He reasons that this is similar to inserting the bracha of Mekadesh HaShabbat in Birkat HaMazon if one forgot Retseh and remembers right after Boneh Yerushalayim. In both cases, one makes up for a missed insertion immediately after the bracha in which it should have been said. On the other hand, the Rabbenu Yonah (cited by the Rosh Brachot 4:17) infers from the gemara that immediately upon finishing a bracha without the correct insertion one must return to the beginning of the mistaken bracha.
The Shulchan Aruch and a number of achronim hold like the Ravyah. The Biur Halacha 114 s.v. Bli Chatimah, however, finds difficulty with the Ravyah and cites some rishonim and achronim who hold like the Rabbenu Yonah. In our case, the Biur Halacha rules that one should avoid this question altogether by waiting until Shomea Tefillah to insert “VeTen Tal UMatar Levracha”.
Summary of the Daily Halacha's
- The Gemara notes that there is an apparent contradiction between two pesukim in Tehillim. On one hand, the pasuk says that Hashem owns the world, yet, the other pasuk describes how the land was given to manking. Chazal explain that indeed, everything belongs to Hashem, but once a person recites a bracha over a certain worldly pleasure, he acquires it.  Chazal, therefore, instituted a series of brachot to be recited every morning, each blessing corresponding to another of the various worldly benefits and pleasures.
- Many poskim rule that while reciting Birkhot HaShachar, the morning Berachos, and while reciting blessing of praise or thanks, one does not need to stand. Others recommend standing. Some say that this only applies if it will not detract from one's concentration. 
- In Talmudic times each of the Birkhot HaShachar were recited when the particular benefit for which it was composed occurred: One would open his eyes and recite the blessing Poke'ach Ivrim; when one would sit up he would say, Matir Asurim; etc. Nowadays, because of a concern of unclean hands when reciting the blessings, as well as the prevalence of those without sufficient knowledge of Halacha, we recite all the Brachot at one time, after preparing oneself for Teffilah. 
- In three of the Birkhot HaShachar, we thank Hashem for not making us a non-Jew, who isn't obligated in any mitzvot or a slave who is limited in the mitzvot he is obligated in. Men also recite a bracha thanking Hashem for not being created a woman who is not as obligated as men in certain mitzvot. At this time, women also affirm their unique status in Judaism and recite SheAsani Kirsono.
- S”A 117:1
- Tur and S”A 114:6, Bach s.v. Katav HaAvi Ezri, Magen Avraham 114:8, Yalkut Yosef 117:6
- Rabbenu Yehuda HaChasid, Hagahot HaSmak, Maharshal (cited by Bach), Gra, and Kitzur Shulchan Aruch
- The Or Letzion 2:7:32 mitigates this by saying that if one is afraid of forgetting to insert it in Shomea Tefillah one may insert those words before starting the next bracha.
- Gemara Brachot 35a
- Pri Megadim (Peticha LeHilchot Brachot #18 and M"Z 432:3, Halichot Shlomo ch. 20, Teshuvot VeHanhagot 2:37
- S"A 46:1-2, Aruch HaShulchan 46:9
- Tur and S"A 46:4