Choresh

From Halachipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Definition

  1. The most definition of Choresh is any action that prepares the soil for planting. [1]
  2. The three types of actions that are forbidden as ‘Plowing’ are making holes, softening, and flattening the ground to prepare it for planting. [2]
  3. The extensions of the Torah prohibition of ‘Plowing’ include removing rocks or thorns from a field, spreading out fertilizer in a field, and watering a field (in order to soften it). [3]
  4. It's forbidden to remove dirt mounds and stones or fill in holes in the field in order to flatten the ground. [4]

Amount

  1. Plowing of any amount is forbidden[5] because even a tiny hole is useful to plant a tiny seed. [6]

Watering dirt or a plant

  1. It's forbidden to water soil on Shabbat. (According to many authorities this is prohibited because of Choresh as it improves the field, while others prohibit it because of Zoreha, planting.) [7]
  2. It's permissible to water desert land if nothing isn't used for planting while the ground is still moist. [8]
  3. It's forbidden to wash one's hands over grass or vegetation. [9]
  4. Since acidic or caustic liquids do not promote vegetation it's permissible to spill vinegar or alcohol on vegetation. Similarly according to many authorities if there is a great need it is permissible to urinate on plants on Shabbat. [10]

Clearing the ground

  1. It's forbidden to clear rocks, logs, or debris off the terrain as it is considered Mesakel (a Toldah of Choresh) because it improves it for planting. [11]
  2. Leveling terrain is a form of landscaping which is a Toldah of Choresh (Mashveh Gumot). [12]
  3. In previous centuries when the flooring was earth it there was no concern of Choresh when digging or filling in holes but there is a prohibition of Boneh (as it improves the structure of the floor). [13]

Weeding

  1. It is forbidden to remove weeds from a field on Shabbat. [14]
  2. It is fertilizing

Cleaning off one's shoes

  1. The rabbinic prohibitions on this action are removing dirt from one’s shoe in a field [because you may come to fill a hole]. A tiled courtyard is included in this prohibition but a house isn’t (unless the ground is dirt). [15]
  2. One can’t rub spit into the ground but one can step on it regularly. [16]

Plowing in a uncultivable land

  1. Even there's no issue of Choresh in digging or plowing in a arid desert soil, or under a low deck or porch where vegetation can not grow, nonetheless there is another concern of Boneh. [17]

Sweeping on shabbat

  1. One can’t sweep in a courtyard even if it’s tiled as a prohibition of sweeping a field but sweeping in a house (with flooring, where majority of houses in the city have flooring) is permitted. One shouldn’t use a broom with straw bristles because it’s definitely going to cause individual bristles to break. [18]

Games on dirt

Playing with marbles

  1. Playing marbles on a dirt floor is forbidden because it may smoothen the ground. Many poskim permit playing on flooring (wood, concrete, carpet), while others impose the prohibition to all floorings. Nonetheless, all agree that it's permissible to play marbles on a table or on a large floor mat. [19]

Playing with dice

  1. Playing with dice on the ground is forbidden because it may smoothen the ground. This prohibition applies even to flooring in a house but not a rug or a table. [20]

Playing with soccer

  1. One should not play soccer on a dirt field. [21]

Playing jacks

  1. Since jacks and kugelach don't involve rolling it's permissible to play it on any surface. [22]

Playing with sand

  1. There is no issue of Choresh in digging in fine dry sand (however, there is an issue of muktzah) and so it is permissible to drag a chair in sand even though it will make a furrow. [23]
  2. It’s permissible for children to play with sand that’s fine, dry, and prepared before Shabbat for this use (as in a sandbox). One may not add water to the sand on Shabbat. [24]
  3. One may not dig in moist or clumpy sand. Therefore if the sand in a sandbox is moist or has solidified as is common after the rain one should not allow children to play in the sandbox. [25]
  4. Adding water to sand is a violation of the Melacha of Losh (kneading). [26]

Dragging heavy objects

  1. It’s permitted to drag a bed, chair, or bench on dirt if you don’t intend to make a hole with it. But a heavy bench or table which will definitely make a hole can’t be dragged even in a tiled courtyard [but is permitted in a house]. [27] It is permissible to push a carraige or wheel chair on dirt befcause the wheels aren't digging up dirt but depressing it. [28]
  2. A children’s toy can be dragged since it has a smooth bottom [because it will not dig up dirt but compress it] even if it will lean to the side and drag. [29]

Compressing soil

  1. Walking on soft dirt is permissible because one is merely compressing soil and not loosening it. However, one should be careful not to llift the wheels when turning to avoid scraping up dirt. [30]
  2. It's permissible to push a carriage on soft soil because one is merely compressing soil and not loosening it. [31]
  3. It's permissible to sit on a chair in the sukkah even thought the legs sink into the ground. [32]

High heel shoes

  1. It is permitted to wear high-heeled shoes on bare soil, yet, it is preferable to walk slowly on the soil. [33]

References

  1. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 251)
  2. Kalkelet Shabbat 2
  3. Rambam Shabbat 8:1
  4. Mishna Brurah (Intro to 337)
  5. Rambam Shabbat 8:1, Mishna Brurah (Intro to 337)
  6. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 252)
  7. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 254)
  8. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 254)
  9. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 268)
  10. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 268)
  11. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 255)
  12. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 255)
  13. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 255-6)
  14. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 255)
  15. S”A 302:6, 337:2, B”HL ibid. “VeYesh”
  16. S”A 316:11, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 255)
  17. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 254)
  18. S”A 337:2, Mishna Brurah 337:14, Sefer Hilchot Shabbat (vol 2 pg 51, Choresh note 115, by Rabbi Eider) in name of Rabbi Moshe Feinstein), 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 256-7)
  19. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2 pg 259)
  20. S”A 338:5, Mishna Brurah 338:20, Kalkelet Shabbat 2
  21. Practical Halachos of Shabbos (pg 21) based on Mishna Brurah 308:158 who says that one shouldn't play with a ball on the ground because of the concern of flattening out the ground.
  22. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 259)
  23. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 252)
  24. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 16:4, Children in Halacha (Rabbi Simcha Bunim, pg 137-8), 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 253)
  25. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 254)
  26. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 254)
  27. S”A 337:1, M”B 337:4, Biur Halacha “VeYesh”
  28. Practical Halachos of Shabbat (pg 21) quoting Hilchos Shabbos by Rabbi Shimon Eider (pg 43 par 8)
  29. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 28:42, Sh”t Yechava Daat 2:52
  30. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 258)
  31. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 258)
  32. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 259)
  33. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, page 258), http://www.dailyhalacha.com/Display.asp?PageIndex=12&ClipID=1176