Choresh

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  1. The three types of actions that are forbidden as ‘Plowing’ are making holes, softening, and flattening the ground to prepare it for planting. [1]
  2. Plowing of any amount is forbidden. [2]
  3. The extensions of the Torah prohibition of ‘Plowing’ include removing rocks or thorns from a field, spreading out fertilizer in a field, and watering a field (in order to soften it). [3]
  4. The rabbinic prohibitions on this action are removing dirt from one’s shoe in a field [because you may come to fill a hole]. A tiled courtyard is included in this prohibition but a house isn’t (unless the ground is dirt). [4]
  5. One can’t rub spit into the ground but one can step on it regularly. [5]
  6. One can’t sweep in a courtyard even if it’s tiled as a prohibition of sweeping a field but sweeping in a house (with flooring, where majority of houses in the city have flooring) is permitted. One shouldn’t use a broom with straw bristles because it’s definitely going to cause individual bristles to break. [6]
  7. Playing with dice on the ground is forbidden because it may smoothen the ground. This prohibition applies even to flooring in a house but not a rug or a table. [7]
  8. It’s permitted to drag a bed, chair, or bench on dirt if you don’t intend to make a hole with it. But a heavy bench or table which will definitely make a hole can’t be dragged even in a tiled courtyard [but is permitted in a house]. [8]
  9. A children’s toy can be dragged since it has a smooth bottom [because it will not dig up dirt but compress it] even if it will lean to the side and drag. [9]

References

  1. Kalkelet Shabbat 2
  2. Rambam Shabbat 8:1
  3. Rambam Shabbat 8:1
  4. S”A 302:6, 337:2, B”HL ibid. “VeYesh”
  5. S”A 316:11
  6. S”A 337:2, Mishna Brurah 337:14, Sefer Hilchot Shabbat (vol 2 pg 51, Choresh note 115, by Rabbi Eider) in name of Rabbi Moshe Feinstein)
  7. S”A 338:5, Mishna Brurah 338:20, Kalkelet Shabbat 2
  8. S”A 337:1, M”B 337:4, Biur Halacha “VeYesh”
  9. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 28:42, Sh”t Yechava Daat 2:52