Difference between revisions of "Chodesh Elul"

From Halachipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Line 103: Line 103:
 
==Blowing Shofar==
 
==Blowing Shofar==
 
===Who Has The Custom to Blow===
 
===Who Has The Custom to Blow===
#The Ashkenazic minhag is to blow the [[Shofar]] after [[Shacharit]] during [[Elul]]. Some have the practice to start on the first day of [[Rosh Chodesh]] [[Elul]], while others start on the second day of [[Rosh Chodesh]].<ref>The Rosh ([[Rosh Hashana]] 4:14) quotes Pirkei D’Rabi Eliezer, which says that Chazal established a practice of blowing the [[shofar]] on [[Rosh Chodesh]] [[Elul]] because a [[shofar]] was blown when Moshe ascended Har Sinai on [[Rosh Chodesh]] [[Elul]]. It continues that the [[shofar]] is blown in order to motivate Bnei Yisrael to do [[teshuva]] and to confuse the Satan. The Rosh adds that this is the basis for the Ashkenazic minhag of blowing [[shofar]] during [[Elul]]. The Rama Orach Chaim 581:1 writes that the minhag is to blow the [[shofar]] during [[Elul]] after [[Shacharit]], and some do so also after [[Maariv]]. Mishna Brurah 581:3 writes that some start on the first day of [[Rosh Chodesh]] and some start from the second day of [[Rosh Chodesh]].</ref>
+
# The Ashkenazic minhag is to blow the [[Shofar]] after [[Shacharit]] during [[Elul]]. Some have the practice to start on the first day of [[Rosh Chodesh]] [[Elul]], while others start on the second day of [[Rosh Chodesh]].<ref>The Rosh ([[Rosh Hashana]] 4:14) quotes Pirkei D’Rabi Eliezer Perek 46, which says that Chazal established a practice of blowing the [[shofar]] on [[Rosh Chodesh]] [[Elul]] because a [[shofar]] was blown when Moshe ascended Har Sinai on [[Rosh Chodesh]] [[Elul]]. It continues that the [[shofar]] is blown in order to motivate Bnei Yisrael to do [[teshuva]] and to confuse the Satan. The Rosh adds that this is the basis for the Ashkenazic minhag of blowing [[shofar]] during [[Elul]]. The Rama Orach Chaim 581:1 writes that the minhag is to blow the [[shofar]] during [[Elul]] after [[Shacharit]], and some do so also after [[Maariv]]. Mishna Brurah 581:3 writes that some start on the first day of [[Rosh Chodesh]] and some start from the second day of [[Rosh Chodesh]].</ref>
#Many Sephardic communities have adopted this practice and blow every day of Elul during [[Kaddish]] at the conclusion of Selichot right before Titkabal, as well as during the recitation of the 13 Middot. Nevertheless, one must be careful not to miss reciting the 13 Middot because he is busy blowing the Shofar, and it shouldn't be done if it will wake up sleeping neighbors.<ref>Kaf HaChaim 581:13, Mekor Chaim 209:1, Chazon Ovadia (Yamim Noraim, page 24), [http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=55401&st=&pgnum=88 Yalkut Yosef (Yamim Noraim, page 46)], Magen Avot ad loc, Laws of Holidays by R' Yonatan Nacson page 367. See [https://ph.yhb.org.il/plus/15-02-01/ Pninei Halacha].</ref>
+
# The Sephardic custom is not really to blow the Shofar. However, many Sephardic communities have adopted this practice and blow every day of Elul during [[Kaddish]] at the conclusion of Selichot right before Titkabal, as well as during the recitation of the 13 Middot. Nevertheless, one must be careful not to miss reciting the 13 Middot because he is busy blowing the Shofar, and it shouldn't be done if it will wake up sleeping neighbors.<ref>Kaf HaChaim 581:13, Mekor Chaim 209:1, Chazon Ovadia (Yamim Noraim, page 24), [http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=55401&st=&pgnum=88 Yalkut Yosef (Yamim Noraim, page 46)], Magen Avot ad loc, Laws of Holidays by R' Yonatan Nacson page 367. See [https://ph.yhb.org.il/plus/15-02-01/ Pninei Halacha].</ref>
 +
 
 
===Number of Blows===
 
===Number of Blows===
 
# The common custom is to blow ''tashrat'', tekiya shevarim teruah and tekiya, one time. Some say that one should do tarat, tashat, and tashrat.<reF>Piskei Teshuvot 581:3 cites the Bach 592 who advocated for tarat, tashat, and tashrat but noted that the minhag was just to do tashrat.</ref>
 
# The common custom is to blow ''tashrat'', tekiya shevarim teruah and tekiya, one time. Some say that one should do tarat, tashat, and tashrat.<reF>Piskei Teshuvot 581:3 cites the Bach 592 who advocated for tarat, tashat, and tashrat but noted that the minhag was just to do tashrat.</ref>
  
 
===When===
 
===When===
#Ashkenazim specifically do not blow the Shofar on Erev Rosh Hashanah, but Sepharadim do not distinguish.<ref>Rama Orach Chaim 581:3, Magen Avot ad loc.</ref>
+
# Ashkenazim specifically do not blow the Shofar on Erev Rosh Hashanah, but Sepharadim do not distinguish.<ref>Rama Orach Chaim 581:3, Magen Avot ad loc.</ref>
 
# The Shofar should not be blown at night even for practice.<ref>Piskei Teshuvot 581:3</ref>
 
# The Shofar should not be blown at night even for practice.<ref>Piskei Teshuvot 581:3</ref>
 +
 
===Minyan for Blowing Shofar===
 
===Minyan for Blowing Shofar===
#The minhag to blow [[shofar]] during [[Elul]] only applies when davening with a [[minyan]] and not if one is davening by oneself.<ref>Sh"t Tzitz Eliezer 12:48, Piskei Teshuvot 581:3. Tzitz Eliezer writes that there's no minhag to have to blow shofar if someone is davening without a minyan.</ref>
+
# The minhag to blow [[shofar]] during [[Elul]] only applies when davening with a [[minyan]] and not if one is davening by oneself.<ref>Sh"t Tzitz Eliezer 12:48, Piskei Teshuvot 581:3. Tzitz Eliezer writes that there's no minhag to have to blow shofar if someone is davening without a minyan.</ref>
 
#If for some reason a [[minyan]] did not blow the [[Shofar]] after [[Shacharit]] they should blow it after [[Mincha]].<ref>Sh"t Iggerot Moshe 4:21, Aruch Hashulchan 581:12, Piskei Teshuvot 581:3</ref>
 
#If for some reason a [[minyan]] did not blow the [[Shofar]] after [[Shacharit]] they should blow it after [[Mincha]].<ref>Sh"t Iggerot Moshe 4:21, Aruch Hashulchan 581:12, Piskei Teshuvot 581:3</ref>
  
 
===Standing for Shofar Blowing During Elul===
 
===Standing for Shofar Blowing During Elul===
# The Minhag does not require on to stand during the blowing, but people are accustomed to.<ref>Piskei Teshuvot 581:3</ref>
+
# The Minhag does not require one to stand during the blowing, but people are accustomed to.<ref>Piskei Teshuvot 581:3</ref>
  
 
==Hatarat Nedarim==
 
==Hatarat Nedarim==

Revision as of 03:19, 7 September 2020

Selichot.jpg

The month of Elul is a month in which everyone has the opportunity to prepare himself for the day of Judgement and the new year. There are various practices that we do during this month in order to further that goal.

Selichot

When to Start Reciting Selichot

  1. The Sephardic minhag is to begin reciting Selichot from the day after Rosh Chodesh Elul.[1]
  2. The Ashkenazic custom is to start reciting Selichot from the Sunday before Rosh HaShana, unless Rosh HaShana falls out on Monday or Tuesday, in which case, Ashkenazim start from two Sundays before Rosh HaShana.[2]
  3. There are no Selichot on Shabbat.[3]

Who is Obligated in Selichot

Women

  1. Women are not obligated to recite Selichot, as it is only a Minhag. If they choose to, they must recite Birkot HaTorah first (especially if they are Sephardi).[4]
  2. In some European communities, it was common for women to attend Selichot,[5] and, nowadays, some Ashkenazi women try to attend Selichot in the synagogue on the first night or Erev Rosh HaShana and Erev Yom Kippur.[6]

Children

  1. One should try to initiate his sons in the Minhag of reciting Selichot but without causing them distress. Since these are auspicious days for prayer, one should at least train them to recite the prayers themselves, if not early in the morning/late at night. Some say Ashkenazim should ensure to bring them on the first night in any case.[7]

Individuals Who Have Trouble Waking Up for Selichot

  1. A Torah scholar (Talmid Chacham) who isn't able to wake up for Selichot because he is learning in the early hours of the morning and going to Selichot would ruin his schedule, should try to go to Selichot during the Aseret Yemei Teshuva (Ten days of Repentance) and some days of Elul.[8] If he is awake after Chatzot it's preferable to say some paragraphs of Selichot and Tikkun Chatzot[9] (which takes precedence over Selichot).[10]
  2. Teachers who teach in the morning and getting up early for Selichot would prevent them from doing their job well should only get up for Selichot some days in Elul and during the Aseret Yimei Teshuva. The same is true for hired workers and officials (who would have their work impacted negatively by rising early). Nonetheless, it's preferable to at least say Selichot to oneself before Shacharit or Mincha.[11]
  3. One should make an effort to say Selichot with fervor and strength and not fall asleep during davening until the very end. This is especially the case for someone wearing Tefillin for whom it is forbidden to sleep. It's better not to wake up early for Selichot if it will end up ruining the prayers and and cause one to fall asleep with Tefillin.[12]

When Should Selichot be Said?

The Earliest Time for Selichot

  1. Most authorities say that Selichot should not be recited at night prior to Chatzot Layla, halachic midnight.[13] However, some communities, such as the Spanish-Portuguese of London and Amsterdam, recited a condensed version of Selichot after Arvit before Kaddish Titkabal and some argue in favor of this custom[14]
  2. Rav Moshe Feinstein writes that in extenuating circumstances one can say selichot before Chatzot. [15]
  3. On Erev Rosh HaShana one should make an extra effort to get up early to say Selichot before Olot HaShachar.[16]
  4. Although one shouldn't say the Selichot before chatzot of the night, one is permitted to listen to them via a recording in order to practice the words and the tunes.[17]

The Latest Time for Selichot

  1. Preferably, Selichot should be said at the end of the night before Olot HaShachar,[18] but if one delayed one can say it after Olot HaShachar.[19] Those who are unable to rise early to say Selichot, should nonetheless say Selichot, either in the morning before Shacharit or even in the afternoon before Mincha. The morning is better than the afternoon[20]

Order of Selichot

  1. According to most poskim, one must say Brachot HaTorah before saying Selichot because there are a number of pesukim in Selichot.[21]
  2. If one doesn't have sufficient time to say all of Selichot because the time for Tefillah has arrived, one should skip "Im Afes Rovah Haken", "Bezochri Al Mishkavi", "Lemitvadeh Chatotav", and "Aylecha Hashem Nasati Aynay", according to the need.[22]

Laws of 13 Middot

  1. The Selichot should be said with proper intent (Kavanah), slowly, and with humility, especially when one is reciting the Yud Gimmel Middot HaRachamim.[23]
  2. One should say the words "Vaya'avor Hashem Al Panav" together with the Shaliach Tzibbur quietly and then say the Yud Gimmel Middot HaRachamim aloud.[24]
  3. One should be careful to pause in between the two names of Hashem in the Yud Gimmel Middot HaRachamim.[25]
  4. One should bow slightly when saying "Hashem Hashem" in the Yud Gimmel Middot HaRachamim.[26]
  5. One should pause between "Beshem" and "Hashem" in the Yud Gimmel Middot.[27]
  6. When saying the Yud Gimmel Middot HaRachamim one shouldn't count the Middot on one's fingers because there is a dispute as to which Middot are counted as the 13.[28]
  7. Regarding the recitation of the 13 Middot without a minyan, see below Selichot Without a Minyan

On Days with no Tachanun

There are a number of situations where one would say Selichot while omitting the Vidui/Tachanun found at the end:

  1. If there is a Chatan amongst those in the minyan. [29]
  2. If there is a father making a Brit Milah for his son, or a Sandek/Mohel is present the morning of a Brit and the minyan is saying Tachanun of Selichot after Alot HaShachar[30] or sunrise[31].
  3. If one is reciting Selichot in the house of an Avel during Shiva. [32] Others state this is only true for Shacharit and not Selichot, which is not said on a regular basis and therefore, only the Avel himself should omit Tachanun.[33][34]

Questions about the Text

The text of Sephardic Selichot on daat.ac.il and text of Ashkenazic Selichot on wikisource.org.

Sepharadim
  1. The proper text is עֲנֵנוּ אֱלָהָא דְמֵאִיר עֲנֵנוּ and not אלקא דרבי מאיר.[35]
  2. Sometimes, in the paragraph of אָתָאנוּ לְחַלּוֹת פָּנֶיךָ people mispronounce the words כַּפָּרָה and בַּצָּרָה to fit the tune by emphasizing the wrong syllable. It is proper to avoid doing so.[36]

Selichot Without a Minyan

  1. If one is praying without a minyan, he should not say the thirteen attributes as a prayer, [37] but one can read the Yud Gimmel middot (13 attributes) with the cantillation as if he is simply reading the torah.[38]
  2. Without a minyan, one cannot recite the paragraphs that are in Aramaic (such as רַחֲמָנָא אִדְכַּר לָן..., דְּעָנֵי לַעֲנִיֵּי. עֲנֵינָן..., מַחֵי וּמַסֵּי.[39]
  3. An individual can say the paragraph of "Kel Melech" even though it says "Zechor Lanu Hayom..." in the plural.[40]
  4. If there was no minyan when the tzibbur recited Ashrei, they should wait to have a minyan to recite Kaddish and when they get a minyan they first say three pesukim before reciting Kaddish.[41]
  5. If there was a minyan in the beginning and then some people left, they can continue and even say Kaddish after Selichot.[42]
  6. If one hears the Yud Gimmel Middot or Kaddish on a live feed via radio or video, he can answer. If it is recorded, he cannot answer.[43] see Brachot Through a Microphone

Shliach Tzibbur for Selichot

  1. Any Jew is fit for being a Shliach Tzibbur as long as the congregation accepts him.[44]
  2. Preferably, the congregation should carefully choose a proper Shliach Tzibbur who is married and is thirty years old. He should be learned and one who practices good deeds.[45] However, someone who is learned and Yireh Shamayim is preferred over someone who lacks these qualities but fits the requirements of being married and thirty years old.[46]
  3. The minhag has become to permit paying the shaliach tzibbur and the baal tokea for the yamim noraim since it is for a mitzvah.[47]

Wearing Tallit for Selichot

  1. The Shliach Tzibbur should wear a Tallit during Selichot. However, he shouldn’t make a Bracha if he puts it on at night before Olot HaShachar and to remove himself from controversy he should borrow a Tallit from a friend (and not use a public Tallit) and have intent that one is not acquiring the Tallit it but only using for respect of the congregation.[48]
  2. If one wears Tzitzit earlier than Olot HaShachar (for example, for Selichot) and then after Olot HaShachar (and preferably after MeSheyakir) puts on a Tallit, one should only make one Bracha on Tzitzit and Tallit even if one puts on Tzitzit a long time before the Tallit.[49]
  3. A bachur who doesn’t wear a Tallit should be careful to make the Bracha on Tzitzit right after Olot HaShachar after feeling the Tzitzit.[50] However, if someone who slept in the Tzitzit all night, one can not make a Bracha on that pair of tzitzit in the morning (nor should he remove the Tzitzit so as to make a hefsek in order to require a Bracha).[51]

Selichot With a Minyan that Uses a Different Nusach

  1. Some say one may not recite Selichot of a different tradition instead of his own, such as Ashkenazim reciting Selichot with Sephardim and vice versa, as we are all obligated to preserve the traditions of our families/communities. However, if one personally finds the other community's version to be inspirational, he may join their Minyan on condition that he also recites the Selichot of his own traditoin, as well.[52]

LeDavid Hashem Ori

  1. The Minhag Ashkenaz is to recite "LeDavid Hashem Ori" (Psalm 27) once in the morning and once in the evening from Rosh Chodesh Elul until and including Shemini Aseret (and in Israel until and including Hoshana Rabba). LeDavid Hashem Ori should be said after Shacharit (after Shir Shel Yom). On days when there’s Mussaf, LeDavid Hashem Ori is said before Ein Chamocha. On Rosh Chodesh, Barchi Nafshi is said before LeDavid Hashem Ori.[53]
  2. Ashkenazim say LeDavid Hashem Ori after Mariv, however, some say it after mincha.[54]
  3. For Sephardim it’s also proper to say LeDavid Hashem Ori after Shacharit, especially since some Sephardim recite it all year long.[55]
  4. Moroccans also recite LeDavid at Shacharit and Arvit from Rosh Chodesh Elul until Hoshana Rabba including Shabbatot. The custom is to recite it before Kaveh at Shacharit, but it has become common to postpone until after Aleinu. On Shabbat, it is supposed to be recited between Kaveh and Ribbi Chananya, but it is often similarly postponed until after Aleinu. Many have the custom to recite it all year long prior to Arvit.[56]

Blowing Shofar

Who Has The Custom to Blow

  1. The Ashkenazic minhag is to blow the Shofar after Shacharit during Elul. Some have the practice to start on the first day of Rosh Chodesh Elul, while others start on the second day of Rosh Chodesh.[57]
  2. The Sephardic custom is not really to blow the Shofar. However, many Sephardic communities have adopted this practice and blow every day of Elul during Kaddish at the conclusion of Selichot right before Titkabal, as well as during the recitation of the 13 Middot. Nevertheless, one must be careful not to miss reciting the 13 Middot because he is busy blowing the Shofar, and it shouldn't be done if it will wake up sleeping neighbors.[58]

Number of Blows

  1. The common custom is to blow tashrat, tekiya shevarim teruah and tekiya, one time. Some say that one should do tarat, tashat, and tashrat.[59]

When

  1. Ashkenazim specifically do not blow the Shofar on Erev Rosh Hashanah, but Sepharadim do not distinguish.[60]
  2. The Shofar should not be blown at night even for practice.[61]

Minyan for Blowing Shofar

  1. The minhag to blow shofar during Elul only applies when davening with a minyan and not if one is davening by oneself.[62]
  2. If for some reason a minyan did not blow the Shofar after Shacharit they should blow it after Mincha.[63]

Standing for Shofar Blowing During Elul

  1. The Minhag does not require one to stand during the blowing, but people are accustomed to.[64]

Hatarat Nedarim


Fasting on Erev Rosh HaShana

Who Should Fast

  1. There is a custom to fast on Erev Rosh HaShanah.[65]
  2. Where there is a Brit Milah that day, one may eat.[66] Some are of the opinion that one can exempt himself with a Siyum Masechet[67] or any other Seudat Mitzvah,[68] as well.
  3. Some say that the minhag is that women do not fast on Erev Rosh Hashana. [69]

Accepting the Fast

  1. One doesn't need to have to accept this fast upon himself during Mincha the day before. [70]

When Does the Fast End

  1. Some say one should be sure to complete the fast.[71] Most Ashkenazim say that one should not fast until Tzeit HaKochavim, as that would cause him to enter Yom Tov famished.[72] Instead, one should fast until either Mincha Gedolah[73] or Plag HaMincha, daven mincha and eat afterwards[74]. Others suggest that one should only fast until Chatzot, eat and then daven mincha afterwards.[75]

Aneinu and Keriat HaTorah at Mincha

  1. One who is still fasting at mincha, should recite aneinu during mincha, [76] For the chazzan, if he doesn't plan on finishing the fast, he shouldn't recite aneinu in the chazarat hashatz at all. [77]
  2. Regardless of how long one plans to fast for, one should not lain the traditional laining for a Ta'anit Tzibur ("Vayechal Moshe").[78]

Other practices

  1. Some pious individuals have the minhag of checking their Tefillin and Mezuzot during Elul.[79]
  2. There is no problem with making a wedding during Elul.[80] However, it is preferable that a ben yeshiva should try to schedule it before elul so as not to disrupt the torah learning during elul when yeshivas usually re-open. But if he couldn't, there is no reason to push it off to after the yamim noraim [81]
  3. The custom is that during Elul, one who writes a letter should write a blessing to the recipient that he should be inscribed in the book of life, such as "lishana tova tichatevu vitichatemu." The same is true of email's or the like.[82]

Related Pages

Links

Sources

  1. Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 581:1
    The Rosh (Rosh Hashana 4:14) writes that a number of Geonim had the minhag of saying Selichot during the Aseret Yemei Teshuva, while other places said them from Rosh Chodesh Elul because that is when Moshe was on Har Sinai receiving the second Luchot. These were days of prayer and begging for mercy for the Jewish people, concluding with Yom Kippur as the day of atonement. Tur Orach Chaim 581 notes that there are three different traditions and adds that the Ashkenaz tradition is to begin on the Saturday Night prior to Rosh Hashanah when Rosh HaShanah begins on Thursday or Shabbat. If it begins on Monday or Tuesday, Selichot begin on the Sunday prior to that. While the Rambam (Teshuva 3:4) follows the minhag of the Geonim, Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 581:1 writes that the Sephardic minhag is to begin reciting Selichot from Rosh Chodesh Elul.
    • Maamar Mordechai (Rav Mordechai Eliyahu) 34:1, Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 9, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim page 1 agree that such is the Sephardic minhag.
    • This is also quoted by the Arizal in Shaar Hakavanot 89:4, Ravyah 542, Machzor Vitri 323, Kol Bo 65. Meiri Chibur Hateshuva Page 207 says this is what should be done, and adds that selichot is a partial fulfillment of learning the laws of each holidays 30 days prior.
    • Magen Avraham 581:2 explains that Shulchan Aruch means from after Rosh Chodesh and not on Rosh Chodesh itself. Mishna Brura 581:1 and Chazon Ovadia (Yamim Noraim pg. 2) agree.
    • see also Sefer HaManhig Hilchot Rosh Hashana 1:25
  2. See previous footnote. Rama Orach Chaim 581:1 writes that the minhag Ashekenaz is to start saying Selichot from the Sunday before Rosh HaShana unless Rosh HaShana falls out on Monday or Tuesday, in which case, Ashkenazim start from two Sundays before Rosh HaShana. Mishna Brurah 581:6 explains that the reason that the preparation is no less than four days is because some had the custom to fast for ten days prior to Yom Kippur, however, since one can’t fast on the two days of Rosh Hashana, Shabbat Shuvah, or Erev Yom Kippur, one had to begin fasting four days prior to Rosh HaShana (see there for other reasons).
  3. Maamar Mordechai (Rav Mordechai Eliyahu) 34:2 writes that there are no Selichot on Shabbat.
  4. Halichot Beitah 7:2, Yalkut Yosef (Otzar Dinim leIshah ulaBat 7:6), Mekadesh Yisrael (Yamim Noraim, Selichot 59), Nitei Gavriel (Hilchot Rosh HaShana 10:16*), Piskei Shlomo (vol. 4 page 137). See Rav Avraham Yosef's opening comments here.
  5. See Magen Avraham 88:3
  6. Nitei Gavriel (Hilchot Rosh HaShana 10:16*), Mekadesh Yisrael (Yamim Noraim, Selichot 59), Ratz KaTzvi (BeMoadei HaShana vol. 1 1:3:7 page ח). See Aderet Tiferet (vol. 7 page 115) about Sephardi ladies in his community.
  7. Mekadesh Yisrael (Yamim Noraim, Selichot 60)
  8. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg. 8-10), Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 11, Shu"t Yechave Daat 3:44. Although the Chida 581:6 writes that Selichot takes precedence over Talmud Torah, that refers to someone who is awake already and would just be giving up a small amount of learning to recite Selichot. But if it will ruin his learning routine and cause him to be tired throughout the day, then we would prefer that he continue to learn properly. (see also Sh"t Yabia Omer OC 2:28:8-9, Sh"t Yabia Omer YD 4:19, for a similar discussion).
    Sefer Seder Hayom page 57 warns that a person shouldn't neglect to recite selichot with the argument that his time is better spent learning rather than praying. Mateh Ephraim 581:11 also stresses a similar idea. The Rama in Darkei Moshe 581:2 quotes the Haghot Ashri saying that any talmid chacham should make sure to recite selichot
  9. Chazon Ovadia (Yamim Noraim pg. 10)
  10. Chazon Ovadia (Yamim Noraim pg. 10), Ben Ish Chai Vayishlach Year 1 Halacha 9
  11. Chacham Ovadia Yosef (Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg. 10) and Yabia Omer OC 2:28:8) based on Rama Yoreh Deah 245:17
  12. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, pg 10-11), Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 12, Chida in Moreh Bietzbah 245, Kaf Hachaim Palagi 11:23
  13. The Magen Avraham 565:5 quotes the Arizal as saying that one should not say Selichot, particularly the 13 middot of rachamim, prior to Chatzot at night. Shaare Teshuva 581:1 quoting Birkei Yosef (Orach Chaim 581:1) argue that it is inappropriate according to Kabbalah for one to recite Selichot prior to Chatzot Laylah, as the first half of the night is connected to judgement, not mercy. Therefore, one who finds himself in a shul where Selichot are being recited before midnight should not recite the yud gimmel middot along with the congregation. Instead, he should remain silent or recite Tehillim.
    • Similarly, Rav Moshe Zachuto in Shu"t Ramaz 30 writes that it is important to only say selichot after chatzot. The Birkei Yosef 581:1, Mishna Brurah 565:12, Kaf HaChaim Orach Chaim 581:1,2, Kaf Hachaim Palacci 16:13, Chacham Ovadia Yosef (Yechave Daat 1:46; Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, pg 2-3); Yalkut Yosef, Moadim page 9), and Ma'amar Mordechai (Rav Mordechai Eliyahu) 34:4 agree.
    While Chacham Ovadia Yosef (Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 6-7) cites some opinions that one may say Selichot according to when Chatzot is in Israel, he concludes clearly that this is not an acceptable leniency
  14. See Keter Shem Tov vol. 5 page 13 who notes how the custom has no source in early Poskim and seems to just be a means of keeping the custom of Selichot alive for those whose inability to attend early in the morning will result in the obliteration of the custom. At the same time, Rav Gaguine notes, the communities in London and Amsterdam have no hand in Kabbalah, which is the source of the insistence not to recite Selichot before chatzot, in the first place. Therefore, there is no reason for them to change their practice due to other Poskim's Kabbalistic concerns. In those locales, it is anyway too cold to get up early in the morning, unlike Spain, so they also do Selichot at 7:00AM. Magen Avot (Orach Chaim fn. 437) refers to Darchei David who finds additional room for leniency to uphold the Spanish-Portuguese custom to do Selichot at night after Arvit.
  15. Rav Moshe Feinstein (Igrot Moshe O.C. 2:105) writes that although prior to Chatzot is not the ideal time, there is no prohibition to say Selichot at such a time, and as a Hora’at Sha’ah, one may be lenient. Saying them at this time is better than not saying them at all. His proof is Shulchan Aruch O.C. 1:2 who rules that praying at the end of the first third of the night is considered a time of mercy. Rav Moshe warns though that the congregation should be warned that this is only being done under the circumstances and next year we will do it at the proper time.
  16. Ma'amar Mordechai 34:5
  17. Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim page 20. See also page 21 where he writes that if one hears the 13 middot or kaddish via a live feed, he should answer, but if it isn't live then he doesn't answer.
  18. Mishna Brurah (Introduction to 581), Maamar Mordechai (Rav Mordechai Eliyahu) 34:5 write that preferably, Selichot should be said at the end of the night before Olot HaShachar.
  19. Ma'amar Mordechai 34:5.
  20. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, pg 6-7), Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 10, Yechave Daat 1:46. see Rabbi Chaim Jachter
  21. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, pg 5) and Halachayomit
    Shulchan Aruch 46:9 writes that birkot hatorah should be said before reciting any pesukim, even as a form of prayer and not learning. He adds that some say that it would not be necessary to say birkot hatorah if you are just reciting the pesukim as a form of prayer. He concludes that it is proper to be strict. The Rama writes that the common practice is to be lenient like the Maharil 150:9 that if you are only reciting the pesukim as a prayer, you need not recite birkot hatorah. The Rambam in Shu"t Peor Hador 104 holds that you must and therefore, Chacham Ovadia (Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 5) writes that you should. Birkei Yosef 46:14 and Mishna Brurah 46:27 agree.
    Aruch Hashulchan 46:14 says this isn't necessary based on the Rama The opinion of the Rama is based on the Maharil 150:9. Nitai Gavriel (Rosh Hashana ch. 10, fnt. 1) advises saying birchos hatorah before selichos unless one is in a rush in which case one can rely on those who say you don’t need to say it before selichos.
    See What Type of Learning Requires Birchot HaTorah
  22. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, p. 33)
  23. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, pg 20)
  24. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, pg 32)
  25. Kaf Hachaim 131:20, Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, p. 32), Yalkut Yosef (Moadim p. 14, 5748 edition)
  26. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg. 32)
  27. Magen Avraham 565:5, Eliya Rabba 581:9, Mishna Brurah 581:4
  28. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, p. 33), Yalkut Yosef tefilla volume 2 page 399.
  29. Shu"t P'nei Meivin Yoreh De'ah Siman 319, Shu"t K'tzeh HaMateh Siman 602 S"K 22.
  30. As is the opinion of Rabbi Mordechai Willig. see Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz See minute 15-16.
  31. As is the opinion of Rav Herschel Schachter see Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz minutes 13-14.
  32. Taz Orach Chaim Siman 133, Pri Megadim Siman 133:47 Siman Katan 9.
  33. Shu"t Mahar"i Asad, Yoreh De'ah Siman 353.
  34. The Elef HaMagen (Siman Katan 44) also suggests that the minyan should relocate to an adjacent house, where no one previously passed way, and can say Tachanun/Vidui as usual there.
  35. Chacham Ovadia Yosef (in Chazon Ovadia (Yamim Noraim) pg. 17 and Halichot Olam 8: pg 53), Rav Chaim Palagi (Shu"t Lev Chaim 2:160), Sdei Chemed Maarechet Eretz Yisrael: 6
  36. Chazon Ovadia (Yamim Noraim ) pg. 18
  37. Rashba Teshuva 1:211 writes that the 13 middot of Rachamim can't be said without a minyan since they are a devar shebekedusha. This is codified by the Shulchan Aruch O.C. 565:5, Mishna Brurah 581:4, and Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, pg 11). see also Halachayomit
  38. Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 565:5, Yechave Daat 1:47, Yalkut Yosef Tefilla 2: page 131, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim 27, [Halacha Yomit], Sh"t Rashba 1:211, Chida in Machazik Beracha 131:6, Ben Ish Chai (Shanah Aleph, Parashat Ki Tisa Halacha 9).
    Iggerot Moshe YD 3:21 allows them to be recited without a minyan as long you use any melody other than the one used for prayer and doesn't require that it be the same cantillation as the torah.
    see also Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz
  39. Eliya Rabba 581:9 writes that we do not recite the prayers that are in Aramaic without a Minyan because the angels do not understand Aramaic (see Gemara Shabbat 12b). Mateh Efraim 581:21, Yabia Omer 10:footnotes to Rav Pealim OC 3:41, Mishna Brura 581:4, Chazon Ovadia (Yamim Noraim pg. 11) and Halachayomitall agree
    On the other hand, Rav Mordechai Lebhar writes (Magen Avot, Orach Chaim 581:1) that in Morocco and Djerba the Aramaic portions were not skipped; however, Amen was said instead of "Bedil Vayaavor."
  40. Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 13, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim page 30
  41. Mishna Brurah 581:4 quoting the Eliyah Rabba
  42. Mishna Brurah 581:4. Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim page 23 says not to say the kaddish titkabal at the conclusion of selichot if you no longer have ten people.
  43. Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim page 21
  44. Rama 581:1
  45. Rama 581:1
  46. Mishna Brurah 581:13
  47. Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 19, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim page 39
  48. Maharil Hilchot Yamim Noraim 4 says there is a custom that the shliach tzibbur should wear a Tallit even at night for selichot since the gemara in rosh hashana 17 says that Hashem wrapped himself in tzitzit like a shliach tzibbur to recite the yud gimmel middot. Mishna Brurah 581:6 writes that the Levush says that the Shliach Tzibbur should wear a Tallit during Selichot but not make a Bracha since there’s a dispute if one can fulfill Tzitzit at night. However, the Taz 581:2 argues that one shouldn’t enter himself into a dispute (whether to make a Bracha) and so one should rather borrow a Tallit from a friend and have Kavana not to acquire it but to use it for respect. see Mikraei Kodesh by Rav Tzvi Pesach Frank Yamim Noraim Siman 1 for the discussion of why the Taz suggests borrowing a friend's Tallit rather than the shuls.
  49. Mishna Brurah 8:24 writes that for sure one should make the Bracha of Tallit and cover the Tzitzit rather than make a Bracha on Tzitzit and then on Tallit. Even if there will be a long time between putting on the Tzitzit and wearing the Tallit, one should still say only one Bracha on the Tallit because there are many concerns about making the Bracha on the Tzitzit (it may not be split on the sides a majority, it may not fit the proper Shuir, or one may have slept in the Tzitzit). [this is also brought in Yalkut Yosef (Tzitzit pg 294, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 16:2).]
  50. Minchat Shlomo 4:1:3 writes that regarding Selichot a bachur who doesn’t wear a Tallit should be careful to make the Bracha on Tzitzit right after Olot after feeling the Tzitzit. This is based on the Rama 18:3 who writes that if one put on a Tallit Katan before Olot HaShachar, then, at Olot one should feel the strings of the Tzitzit and make a Bracha.
  51. Mishna Brurah 8:42
  52. Teshuvot Avigdor HaLevi (Nebenzal) OC page 406, 581:4. The footnotes ad loc. note how Rav Yaakov Ariel permits it. Rav Shlomo Aviner (Piskei Shlomo vol. 1 page 261 contends that Avodat Hashem is about Hashem ("havayah") not experiences ("chavaya"). Rav Shalom Meshash (Shemesh uMagen vol. 4 Orach Chaim 72:1) also rules that one must recite the Nusach of his community, even if he, for example, is a Sephardi student in an Ashkenazi yeshiva. Rav Mordechai Lebhar (Magen Avot, Orach Chaim 581:1) questions why this is so, since it's not part of the official seder hatefillah and is just Tefillot and Bakashot to Hashem. As long as it increases one's Kavanna, what could be wrong, he asks. Rav Yaakov Ariel (Halacha Beyamenu page 310, "ההלכה והציונות הדתית דיבור המתחיל שמרנות עדתית") writes similarly that in an education institution it's an opportunity to introduce and familiarize the students with each other's traditions. Things like Selichot and Zemirot, which are not institutions of the Anshei Kenesset HaGedolah, should not fall behind the limits of Ashkenazi and Sepharadi traditions barring each community from participating in each other's services. Although, if joining the Sefaradim would entail separating oneself from the congregation, Rav Ariel discourages it in a different Teshuvah.
  53. Mishna Brurah 581:2 says that the Minhag Ashkenaz is to say LeDavid Hashem Ori after Shacharit from Rosh Chodesh Elul until and including Shemini Aseret. LeDavid Hashem Ori should be said after Shir Shel Yom. On days when there’s Mussaf, LeDavid Hashem Ori is said before Ein Chamocha. On Rosh Chodesh, Barchei Nafsei is said before LeDavid Hashem Ori. Sh”t Shevet HaLevi 10:67 and Chazon Ovadyah (pg 24) writes that in Israel the minhag is to say it until and including Hoshana Rabba.
  54. Mateh Efraim 551:6 writes that LeDavid Hashem Ori in the evening should be said after Mincha. This is also the opinion of Mishna Brurah 581:2. However, Elef HaMagen 581:10 holds that LeDavid Hashem Ori should be said after Mariv. Shalmei Moed (pg 21) in name of Rav Shlomo Zalman writes that one should follow the minhag of the Tzibbur one is praying with. Shalmei Moed (pg 21) says that the minhag Ashkenaz is to say LeDavid Hashem Ori after Mariv (such is how the Artscroll Siddur has it).
  55. Chazon Ovadyah pg 24 writes that even for sephardim it’s proper to say LeDavid Hashem after Shacharit.
  56. Magen Avot (Orach Chaim 581:1)
  57. The Rosh (Rosh Hashana 4:14) quotes Pirkei D’Rabi Eliezer Perek 46, which says that Chazal established a practice of blowing the shofar on Rosh Chodesh Elul because a shofar was blown when Moshe ascended Har Sinai on Rosh Chodesh Elul. It continues that the shofar is blown in order to motivate Bnei Yisrael to do teshuva and to confuse the Satan. The Rosh adds that this is the basis for the Ashkenazic minhag of blowing shofar during Elul. The Rama Orach Chaim 581:1 writes that the minhag is to blow the shofar during Elul after Shacharit, and some do so also after Maariv. Mishna Brurah 581:3 writes that some start on the first day of Rosh Chodesh and some start from the second day of Rosh Chodesh.
  58. Kaf HaChaim 581:13, Mekor Chaim 209:1, Chazon Ovadia (Yamim Noraim, page 24), Yalkut Yosef (Yamim Noraim, page 46), Magen Avot ad loc, Laws of Holidays by R' Yonatan Nacson page 367. See Pninei Halacha.
  59. Piskei Teshuvot 581:3 cites the Bach 592 who advocated for tarat, tashat, and tashrat but noted that the minhag was just to do tashrat.
  60. Rama Orach Chaim 581:3, Magen Avot ad loc.
  61. Piskei Teshuvot 581:3
  62. Sh"t Tzitz Eliezer 12:48, Piskei Teshuvot 581:3. Tzitz Eliezer writes that there's no minhag to have to blow shofar if someone is davening without a minyan.
  63. Sh"t Iggerot Moshe 4:21, Aruch Hashulchan 581:12, Piskei Teshuvot 581:3
  64. Piskei Teshuvot 581:3
  65. Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 581:2 based on a Midrash Tanchuma
  66. Rama, Orach Chaim 581:2
  67. Orchot Rabbeinu Vol. 2, pg 172 in the name of the Steipler Gaon. Elef HaMagen S"K 77.
  68. Magen Avot (Lebhar, Orach Chaim 581:2
  69. Mishna Brurah 581:16 writes that women also fast, but Rabbi Yissachar Dov Krakowski says this isn't the custom.
  70. Mishna Brurah 581:16, Rabbi Yissachar Dov Krakowski. This is also the ruling of Rabbi Eli Mansour However, Revach.net quotes Rav Elyashiv as saying that if you don't fast every year, you should accept it during mincha the day before.
  71. Rabbi Eli Mansour says that one shouldn't eat until Kiddush that night. see Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 20 and Halichot Olam 2:pg. 233
  72. Rama Orach Chaim 581:2 writes that one doesn't need to complete the fast of Aseret Yemey Teshuva. Magen Avraham 581:10 and Mishna Brurah 581:16 apply this to Erev Rosh Hashana as well. Mateh Efraim Siman 38
  73. MaChazit HaShekel Orach Chaim 581 S"K 10. Mishna Berurah 562 S"K 10 says one can rely on this opinion in the event one cannot fast until Plag Mincha. This is the widespread practice.
  74. Mateh Efraim, Siman 35. Mishna Berurah 562:10. In either case, one should not formally declare the fast at Mincha of the day before, as doing so without stipulating that he will not complete the fast will require him to do Hatarat Nedarim to finish it before Yom Tov begins.
  75. Shu"t Yaavet"z 2:147, Elef HaMagen S"K 73, Likutei MaHariach- Dinei U'Minhagei Aseret Yimei Teshuva.
  76. Mishna Brurah 562:7 says this is true even if you do not plan on finishing the fast. For sephardim, the Kaf Hachayim 562:8 says if you do not plan on finishing the fast to recite aneinu during elokay nitzor.
  77. Beiur Halachah 562:1 "aval."
  78. Rama, Orach Chaim 581:2
  79. Mateh Efraim 581:10 writes that as part of being introspective during Elul, some pious individuals check their Tefillin and Mezuzot during Elul. He concludes that it is a good minhag. This is quoted by the Kitzur S”A 128:3, Chazon Ovadyah (p. 26), and Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 18. Also see Yechave Daat 1:49. It is noteworthy that S”A 39:10 rules that Tefillin that were established as being kosher do not have to be checked if they are used frequently. Additionally, S”A Y.D. 291:1 rules that Mezuzot should be checked twice every seven years. see also Daily Halacha by Rabbi Eli Mansour
  80. Sh"t Yechave Daat 1:48, Sdei Chemed Maarechet Chatan Vikalla Siman 23
  81. Sh"t Yechave Daat 1:48
  82. Mateh Efraim 581:9, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim page 26. Rabbi Eli Mansour's Daily Halacha adds that one should includes this in emails as well.
( V | T ) The Jewish Holidays Matzah.jpg
Elul/Tishrei
Chodesh Elul - Rosh Hashana - Aseret Yimei Teshuva - Yom Kippur - Sukkot - Shemini Aseret - Simchat Torah
Kislev/Shvat/Adar
Chanukah - Tu BiShevat - Purim - Purim Katan
Nissan/Iyar/Sivan
Pesach - Yom HaAtzmaut - Lag BaOmer - Sefirat HaOmer - Shavuot
Tammuz/Av
Three Weeks - Nine Days - Tisha BeAv - Tu BeAv
Misc.
Yom Tov - Chol HaMoed - Rosh Chodesh - Fast Days