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Revision as of 14:05, 10 October 2013 by Darrensultan
- Chazal viewed the recitation of Amen very highly. In fact, Chazal tell us that responding Amen is of greater significance than reciting the Beracha. The failure to recite Amen is considered a gross transgression, while responding Amen with great concentration opens the gates of Gan Eden. 
- The letters of Amen are the root letters of the word Emunah, belief or trust. By responding Amen one declares: "I believe in the bracha that I have just heard and I affirm its truth." Additionally, when responding Amen one should have in mind the beginning of the Bracha, "Baruch Atta Hashem", that Hashem's name is Blessed. 
- One should answer Amen to any blessing one hears whether he wishes to fulfill an obligation or not. Moreover, the obligation to respond Amen even applies to a Bracha that does not contain Hashem's Name, such as answering to a Mi Sheberach or HaRachaman. 
- The proper intention of the word Amen changes with the Bracha. When answering Amen to Birchot HaMitzvah or Birchot HaNehenin, one's intention should be to affirm the truth of the Bracha and his belief in it. When answering to Birchot HaShevach, one should have in mind that he is affirming the truth of that praise. When responding Amen to Tefillot one's Amen should be a request of Hashem to fulfill that prayer. 
- When reciting Kiddush on Friday night, we say the words "ויהי ערב ויהי בקר" quietly before saying "יום הששי". In truth, ויהי ערב is actually the second part of the Passuk which precedes יום הששי. We don’t say those words out loud because the first letters of יום הששי ויכלו השמים form the name of Hashem.
- If a person hears a Bracha made properly by a Jew there’s a obligation to answer Amen. (The obligation is based on the פסוק of כי שם יהוה אקרא הבו גדל לאלהינו). 
- It’s proper to answer Amen after a Tefillah or Bracha even if it doesn’t have the name of Hashem (Shem UMalchut) for example: the Mi SheBerach (מי שברך), Harachaman (הרחמן) in benching, and some add “Makom Yenachem Etchem…”. 
- The proper intent one should have when saying Amen is “ the Bracha being made is true and I believe in Hashem”. For a Bracha of a request or Tefillah one’s intent should include “it’s should be Hashem’s will that it comes true.” 
- Amen must be said within Toch Kedi Dibbur (2-3 seconds) of the Bracha or if one’s in a congregation one can say Amen until the majority of the congregation has finished saying Amen. 
- When hearing a Bracha over a microphone, if one’s in the same room one may answer Amen, if not don’t answer. 
- One may answer amen to a Yehi Ratzon a Jew says even if the Yehi Ratzon didn't have Hashem's name in it.
- If one is obligated in a certain Bracha and one didn’t hear the Bracha it’s forbidden to answer Amen, which is called Amen Yetoma. If one is not obligated in the mitzvah as long as one knows which Bracha is being made it’s permissible to answer Amen. 
- Preferably one should hear the Bracha of the Shaliach Tzibbur and answer amen, however, after the fact, even if one didn’t hear the bracha but as long as one knows which Bracha was made, one may answer amen. 
Answering to Kaddish
- Gemara Brachot 53b, Chaye Adam (Klal 6:1), Gemara Shabbat 119b, Rashi Shabbat 119b s.v. BeChol
- Shulchan Aruch 124:6, Mishna Brurah 124:24
- Shulchan Aruch 124:6, 189:5, 215:9
- Shulchan Aruch 124:6, Mishna Brurah 124:25
- Rama 271:10, Levush 271:10, Aruch HaShulchan 271:25, Chatom Sofer OC 10
- S”A 215:2, Mishna Brurah 215:8, Rambam Hilchot Berachot 1:13, Kaf Hachayim 124:30
- Mishna Brurah 215:9, Vezot HaBracha pg 188 in name of Rav Shlomo Zalman
- Mishna Brurah 124:10, Vezot HaBracha pg 188)
- Rama 124:8 says that the Amen must be said immediately after the Bracha and Mishna Brurah 124:34 explain it means Toch Kedi Dibbur. Vezot HaBracha (pg 189) agrees.
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 189) in name of Rav Shlomo Zalman
- Nitei Gavriel Rosh Hashana 29:23
- S”A 124:8 holds that only is a person was obligated in a Bracha and didn’t hear it, even if one knows which Bracha is being made, one can’t answer Amen. However, if one wasn’t obligated in the Bracha, one wasn’t obligated in a Bracha, one may answer as long as one hears others saying Amen even if one doesn’t know which Bracha was made. Yet, Rama argues that even by Brachot that one’s not obligated in one shouldn’t answer Amen if one doesn’t know which Bracha was made. However, if one knows which Bracha is being made one may answer amen if one’s not obligated in the Bracha.
- Concerning Chazarat HaShas the Mishna Brurah 124:33 writes that it’s preferable to hear the Bracha from the shaliach tzibbur since some say that since it’s a rabbinic institution it’s like it’s a Bracha one’s obligated in, however, after the fact, one can answer as long as one knows which Bracha was made (because one knows which Bracha the tzibbur was up on even though one didn’t hear the bracha). Vezot HaBracha pg 189 agrees. Yalkut Yosef (Tefillah vol 2 pg 163, siman 124 note 8) rules that one should be strict like the Rama, except that by Chazarat HaShas if one already prayed one may answer as long as one knows which Bracha is made.
- Gemara Shabbat 119b