Accepting Shabbat early

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Friday afternoon

  1. At Mincha on Friday there’s no Tachanun even if one prays mincha Gedolah (six and a half hours). [1]
  2. If one has a meal after midday on Friday should say Shir HaMaalot and not Al Neharot Bavel. [2]

Accepting Shabbat before praying Mincha

  1. Once one accepts Shabbat one may not pray mincha of Friday but rather one must pray Mariv twice (for Tashlumin). [3]
  2. If one arrived in Shul which was up to Barchu of Mariv on Friday night and one still didn't pray mincha, one should say mincha in a different shul or outside that Shul but not answer Brachu before saying Mincha. [4]
  3. If the Tzibur did not yet reach Barchu one may pray mincha in the shul even if they will reach Barchu while one is still saying Mincha, nonetheless it's preferable to say it outside the Shul (if the Tzibbur will reach Barchu while one is still saying Mincha). [5]
  4. If one accepted Shabbat early and majority of the community has not yet accepted Shabbat one may ask another Jew to perform a melacha on one's behalf. [6]

Praying Arvit early

  1. One may say Arvit earlier than the rest of the week even if one normally prays Mincha after Plag Mincha and Arvit after nighttime. However, some are strict that if one is going to pray Arvit before nighttime that one should make sure to pray mincha before Plag Mincha, while some defend those who are lenient in a minyan to pray both Mincha and Arvit after Plag Mincha before nighttime. [7]
  2. Only after ten and three quarter hours (Plag Mincha) one may light Shabbat candles, and then accept Shabbat with saying Arvit. [8] Acceptance of Shabbat before that time is null and void. [9]
  3. If one accepted Shabbat early one may say Kiddush [10] and eat the Friday night meal before nighttime. However, some argue that one doesn’t fulfill one’s obligation before nighttime and so some say one shouldn’t start one’s meal until Tzet HaCochavim and some say that one should eat at least a Kezayit of bread after nightfall. [11]
  4. If one prayed Arvit if there’s more than a half hour before Tzet HaCochavim one may begin one’s meal, however, if there’s less than a half hour one shouldn’t begin one’s meal, however, those who do have what to rely on. Whether or not one began one’s Shabbat meal early one should make sure to repeat Shema after Tzet HaCochavim.[12]

What are the laws of the addition to Shabbat?

  1. It is forbidden to do any Melacha after one accepted Shabbat. [13]
  2. If one accepted Shabbat early and most of the community didn't accept Shabbat it is permitted to ask a Jew who didn't accept to do a Melacha for him. [14]
  3. If it's necessary to do a Melacha and it's still early in the day before sunset, some say that may perform a Heiter Nederim, nullification of one's vow to accept Shabbat before 3 people, while others hold that the annulment isn't effective. [15]
  4. One is permitted to do Kiddish and the Friday night meal before nightfall, however it's preferable to have at least a Kezayit of food after nightfall. [16]

Mistaken acceptance of Shabbat early

  1. If someone made a mistake on Friday afternoon and prayed Arvit thinking that it was nighttime one has not fulfilled one’s obligation and would have to pray again. One would be permissible to do Melacha (activity forbidden on Shabbat) until one prays again, while others forbid. However, if a community made such a mistake they would not have to repeat Shemona Esreh. According to many one is permissible to do Melacha until one prays again while other to some it’s forbidden to do Melacha. [17]

References

  1. S”A 267:1, Mishna Brurah 267:1
  2. Mishna Brurah 267:1
  3. S"A 263:15
  4. S"A 263:15, Mishna Brurah 263:58
  5. S"A 263:16, Mishna Brurah 263:63
  6. S"A 263:17, Mishna Brurah 263:64
    • The Mishna (Brachot 26a) writes that according to Rabbi Yehuda one must pray Mincha prior to ten and three quarter hours while according to Rabbanan mincha may be said until nighttime. According to Rabbi Yehuda the earliest time to say Mariv is ten and three quarter hours while according to Rabbanan the earliest time is nighttime.
    • Many Rishonim (Tosfot (Brachot 2a D”H MeMaymatai), Rabbenu Yonah (Brachot 18b D”H DeAved), Rosh (Brachot 4:3), Kesef Mishna (Tefillah 3:4), S”A 233:1) write that one must be consistent to either always follow Rabbi Yehuda or Rabbanan.
    • In fact, the Tur 293 quotes the Ritz Gayit who argues that since the minhag is to pray mincha during the week after Plag Mincha, on Friday night as well one may not pray early. [Similarly, Gemara Brachot 27a-b records the practice of Rav to pray Arvit early on Friday afternoon. Tosfot (Brachot 27a D”H DeRav) understands that Rav held like Rabbi Yehuda that the latest time for Mincha is Plag Mincha (ten and three quarter hours) and the earliest time for Arvit is also Plag Mincha.]
    • However, the Bet Yosef 267:2 argues based on the Rambam (Tefillah 3:7) and Rosh (Brachot 4:6) who simply codify the halacha of praying Arvit early on Friday that one is permitted to pray Arvit early even if one doesn’t do so during the week. [The same implication could be made from the Tur 267:1.] S”A codifies this as halacha that one is permitted to pray Arvit earlier than one does during the week.
    • [Magan Avraham 267:1 at first questions this ruling of S”A because the Gemara Brachot 27a seems to assign Rav to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda meaning that one may only pray early on Friday night if one always follows Rabbi Yehuda. He adds that this is also implied from Kesef Mishna (Tefillah 3:7) who says that Friday night has the same status as the rest of the week. However, the Magan Avraham answers that the Gemara only meant to assign Rav to Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion in the initial discussion but in conclusion the Gemara reinterpreted the story of Rav to mean that one may pray Arvit earlier than one does during the week. Additionally he explains that Arvit was instituted corresponding to the limbs and fats burned at night, however, on Friday night the limbs and fats were not burnt after nightfall. Mishna Brurah 267:3 adds that the ruling of S”A is based on those who say that accepting Shabbat makes it considered as if it was night regarding prayer.]
    • Nonetheless, the Mishna Brurah 267:3 writes that if one follows Rabbi Yehuda on Friday night (and prays Arvit early) one should make sure to say Mincha before Plag Mincha (ten and three quarter hours) so that one doesn’t contradict oneself within one night. The Biur Halacha (267:2 D”H VeBePlag) writes that even though there is a lenient opinion which permits a minyan to pray both Mincha and Arvit between Plag Mincha and nighttime, since the minhag isn’t to rely on this opinion during the week because this opinion isn’t supported by the Gemara on Friday night as well one shouldn’t rely on this opinion. The Mishna Brurah 267:3 writes that the only time to rely on this lenient opinion is in a need of great need and if one prays Arvit during the time of Ben HaShemashot.
  7. S”A 267:2
    • Gemara Shabbat 118b quotes Rabbi Yose who prayed to have his portion among the people of Teveriyah who accepted Shabbat early. Rashi (D”H MeMachnisei) explains that since Teveriyah was in a valley and the sun appeared to set earlier the people would accept Shabbat early. Additionally, in Gemara Pesachim 105b Rav Nachman Bar Yitchak says that going into Shabbat the earlier one accepts Shabbat the better. Rashbam (D”H Ayulei) explains that it’s preferable because one is showing a love for the mitzvah to do it early and Zarizin Makdimin LeMitzvot (the enthusiastic are eager to do מצות early).
    • How early can one accept Shabbat and light candles? Gemara Brachot 27a-b records the practice of Rav to pray Arvit early on Friday afternoon. Tosfot (Brachot 27a D”H DeRav) understands that this practice of accepting Shabbat early and lighting Shabbat candles early is only permitted starting from Plag Mincha (ten and three quarter hours). Rabbenu Yonah (Brachot 18b D”H Rav Tzali), Mordechai (Brachot Siman 90), and Rosh (Brachot 4:6) agree. [This is how the Bet Yosef 263:4 and 267:2 understands the above Rishonim.]
    • How early can one say Shema? The Rabbenu Yonah (18b D”H Rav Tzali) and Rosh (Brachot 4:6) add that one who prays Arvit early should only say Shemona Esreh early and say Brachot Shema and Shema after Tzet HaCochavim. Even though one is losing out on juxtaposing Shema to Shemona Esreh it’s preferable to accept Shabbat early because of the mitzvah to add from the week onto Shabbat. The Rambam (Tefillah 3:7) agrees that it’s an issue to separate Shema from Shemona Esreh against the Raavad.
    • The S”A 235:1 concludes that even though the halacha accepts the opinions that one doesn’t fulfill Shema before Tzet HaCochavim if one is praying in a minyan which is praying Arvit before Tzet HaCochavim one should still pray Shema with the Brachot together with the minyan and repeat Shema after Tzet HaCochavim. (See further discussion there).
  8. Mishna Brurah 267:4
  9. In Gemara Brachot 27b Shmuel says that if one accepted Shabbat early one may make Kiddish early (before nighttime). This is brought as halacha by the Rif (Brachot 18b, on the bottom), Rosh (Brachot 4:6, at the end), and Rambam (Shabbat 29:11). The S”A 267:2 writes that one may even before nighttime implying that one may make Kiddish early. The Mishna Brurah 267:5 writes explicitly that one may make Kiddish before nighttime.
    • [The Mishna Brurah 267:5 writes the reason one may make Kiddish before nightfall is because the acceptance of Shabbat early makes it considered as if it was already Shabbat. See Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat vol 1 pg 201-4) who discusses how the Rambam could hold of this considering that he omits the entire idea of Tosefet Shabbat (accepting Shabbat early).]
  10. The Bet Yosef 267:2 quotes the Mahari Avuhav who infers from the Rosh who says that one should wait to have Matza on Pesach after nightfall that on a regular Shabbat one could fulfill one’s obligation of the Shabbat meal before nighttime. The Magan Avraham 267:1 (at the end) agrees that from many Rishonim it’s implied that one who makes early Shabbat may have one’s meal early, however, the Shelah and Bach say that one must have at least a Kezayit of bread after Tzet HaCochavim. Mishna Brurah 267:5 rules that preferably one should be concerned for the strict opinions to have at least a Kezayit of bread after nightfall. Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat vol 1 pg 201-4) agrees that preferably one should be concerned for the strict opinions one’s entire meal after nightfall.
    • The Bet Yosef 267:2 asks that even if one is permitted to have one’s Shabbat meal before nighttime how could it permitted to eat before saying Shema. The Bet Yosef answers that even though we hold that one doesn’t fulfill Shema until Tzet HaCochavim since many opinions hold that one may fulfill saying Shema earlier it’s not considered like eating before having said Shema.
    • The Magan Avraham 267:2 argues on the Bet Yosef and says that since one didn’t fulfill Shema one may begin one’s meal within a half hour of Tzet HaCochavim.
    • Mishna Brurah 267:6 rules that if there’s less than a half hour before Tzet HaCochavim one shouldn’t begin one’s meal because according to many opinions one hasn’t fulfilled one’s obligation of Shema, however, those who do begin the meal at that time have what to rely on. Nonetheless, concludes Mishna Brurah, whether or not one eats one’s meal early one must make sure to repeat Shema after Tzet HaCochavim. Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat vol 1 pg 201-4) agrees that one should make sure to start one’s meal before a half hour before Tzet HaCochavim.
  11. S"A 263:10, Mishna Brurah 261:28
  12. S"A 263:17, Mishna Brurah 263:64
  13. Taz 263:3 and Levush hold that one may do Hatarat Nedarim to annul one's early acceptance of Shabbat, while the Magan Avraham 263:31, Aruch HaShulchan 263:25, Mishna Brurah 263:5 hold that this annulment will not be effective to permit one to do Melacha. See Igrot Moshe 2:38
  14. Bach 473 writes that one can't have the Shabbat meal before nightfall. However, Taz argues and permits having a meal before nightfall. Chaye Adam (Shabbat 6:2) and Mishna Berurah 267:5 rule that one can have one's meal early but one should preferably have a Kezayit of food after nightfall to satisfy the opinion of the Bach.
  15. Gemara Brachot 27b writes that on Friday afternoon someone who made a mistake and said Arvit early thinking it was nighttime according to Abaye he would have to pray again and it would be permissible to do Melacha. However, if it’s a community who made such a mistake Rebbe said that they do not have to repeat Shemona Esreh because of Tirech DeTzibbur. The Rosh 4:6, Tur, and S”A 263:14 rule that it’s permissible to do Melacha until they pray again, while the Magan Avraham 263:26 quotes many Rishonim (Or Zaruha, Rokeach, Raavan) who are strict and forbid Melacha since they don’t have to pray again.