Difference between revisions of "Accepting Shabbat early"

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==Making early Shabbat==
 
==Making early Shabbat==
# One may say Arvit earlier than the rest of the week even if one normally prays Mincha after Plag Mincha and Arvit after nighttime. However, some are strict that if one is going to pray Arvit before nighttime that one should make sure to pray mincha before Plag Mincha, while some defend those who are lenient in a minyan to pray both Mincha and Arvit after Plag Mincha before nighttime. <ref>
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# One may say Arvit earlier than the rest of the week even if one normally prays Mincha after Plag Mincha and Arvit after nighttime. Many authorities hold that if one is going to pray Arvit before nighttime that one should make sure to pray mincha before Plag Mincha even if one will pray privately, while some defend those who are lenient in a minyan to pray both Mincha and Arvit after Plag Mincha before nighttime. <ref>
 
* The Mishna (Brachot 26a) writes that according to Rabbi Yehuda one must pray Mincha prior to ten and three quarter hours while according to Rabbanan mincha may be said until nighttime. According to Rabbi Yehuda the earliest time to say Mariv is ten and three quarter hours while according to Rabbanan the earliest time is nighttime.
 
* The Mishna (Brachot 26a) writes that according to Rabbi Yehuda one must pray Mincha prior to ten and three quarter hours while according to Rabbanan mincha may be said until nighttime. According to Rabbi Yehuda the earliest time to say Mariv is ten and three quarter hours while according to Rabbanan the earliest time is nighttime.
 
* Many Rishonim (Tosfot (Brachot 2a D”H MeMaymatai), Rabbenu Yonah (Brachot 18b D”H DeAved), Rosh (Brachot 4:3), Kesef Mishna (Tefillah 3:4), S”A 233:1) write that one must be consistent to either always follow Rabbi Yehuda or Rabbanan.  
 
* Many Rishonim (Tosfot (Brachot 2a D”H MeMaymatai), Rabbenu Yonah (Brachot 18b D”H DeAved), Rosh (Brachot 4:3), Kesef Mishna (Tefillah 3:4), S”A 233:1) write that one must be consistent to either always follow Rabbi Yehuda or Rabbanan.  
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* However, the Bet Yosef 267:2 argues based on the Rambam (Tefillah 3:7) and Rosh (Brachot 4:6) who simply codify the halacha of praying Arvit early on Friday that one is permitted to pray Arvit early even if one doesn’t do so during the week. [The same implication could be made from the Tur 267:1.] S”A codifies this as halacha that one is permitted to pray Arvit earlier than one does during the week.  
 
* However, the Bet Yosef 267:2 argues based on the Rambam (Tefillah 3:7) and Rosh (Brachot 4:6) who simply codify the halacha of praying Arvit early on Friday that one is permitted to pray Arvit early even if one doesn’t do so during the week. [The same implication could be made from the Tur 267:1.] S”A codifies this as halacha that one is permitted to pray Arvit earlier than one does during the week.  
 
* [Magan Avraham 267:1 at first questions this ruling of S”A because the Gemara Brachot 27a seems to assign Rav to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda meaning that one may only pray early on Friday night if one always follows Rabbi Yehuda. He adds that this is also implied from Kesef Mishna (Tefillah 3:7) who says that Friday night has the same status as the rest of the week. However, the Magan Avraham answers that the Gemara only meant to assign Rav to Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion in the initial discussion but in conclusion the Gemara reinterpreted the story of Rav to mean that one may pray Arvit earlier than one does during the week. Additionally he explains that Arvit was instituted corresponding to the limbs and fats burned at night, however, on Friday night the limbs and fats were not burnt after nightfall. Mishna Brurah 267:3 adds that the ruling of S”A is based on those who say that accepting Shabbat makes it considered as if it was night regarding prayer.]  
 
* [Magan Avraham 267:1 at first questions this ruling of S”A because the Gemara Brachot 27a seems to assign Rav to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda meaning that one may only pray early on Friday night if one always follows Rabbi Yehuda. He adds that this is also implied from Kesef Mishna (Tefillah 3:7) who says that Friday night has the same status as the rest of the week. However, the Magan Avraham answers that the Gemara only meant to assign Rav to Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion in the initial discussion but in conclusion the Gemara reinterpreted the story of Rav to mean that one may pray Arvit earlier than one does during the week. Additionally he explains that Arvit was instituted corresponding to the limbs and fats burned at night, however, on Friday night the limbs and fats were not burnt after nightfall. Mishna Brurah 267:3 adds that the ruling of S”A is based on those who say that accepting Shabbat makes it considered as if it was night regarding prayer.]  
* Nonetheless, the Mishna Brurah 267:3 writes that if one follows Rabbi Yehuda on Friday night (and prays Arvit early) one should make sure to say Mincha before Plag Mincha (ten and three quarter hours) so that one doesn’t contradict oneself within one night. The Biur Halacha (267:2 D”H VeBePlag) writes that even though there is a lenient opinion which permits a minyan to pray both Mincha and Arvit between Plag Mincha and nighttime, since the minhag isn’t to rely on this opinion during the week because this opinion isn’t supported by the Gemara on Friday night as well one shouldn’t rely on this opinion. The Mishna Brurah 267:3 writes that the only time to rely on this lenient opinion is in a need of great need and if one prays Arvit during the time of Ben HaShemashot. </ref>
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* Nonetheless, the Mishna Brurah 267:3 writes that if one follows Rabbi Yehuda on Friday night (and prays Arvit early) one should make sure to say Mincha before Plag Mincha (ten and three quarter hours) so that one doesn’t contradict oneself within one night. The Biur Halacha (267:2 D”H VeBePlag) writes that even though there is a lenient opinion which permits a minyan to pray both Mincha and Arvit between Plag Mincha and nighttime, since the minhag isn’t to rely on this opinion during the week because this opinion isn’t supported by the Gemara on Friday night as well one shouldn’t rely on this opinion. The Mishna Brurah 267:3 writes that the only time to rely on this lenient opinion is in a need of great need and if one prays Arvit during the time of Ben HaShemashot. Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat, vol 1, pg 204-5) writes that one shouldn't contradict oneself to pray Mincha after plag mincha and arvit before nighttime. Nonetheless, Menuchat Ahava (vol 1, chap 6, note 6) writes that it is completely permitted but the minhag is to pray arvit after nightfall.
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* [http://www.bknw.org/library/articles/shabbos/Making%20Early%20Shabbos.pdf Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz] quotes Rav Solavatchik who held like the Mishna Brurah and concluded that one should pray mincha privately without a minyan before Plag Mincha so as not to contradict oneself. He also writes that in order to avoid issues of Yuhara (appearing religiously arrogant) one should go to mincha when the minyan is praying and pretend to pray along with them. </ref>
 
# Only after ten and three quarter hours (Plag Mincha) one may light Shabbat candles, and then accept Shabbat with saying Arvit. <Ref>S”A 267:2  
 
# Only after ten and three quarter hours (Plag Mincha) one may light Shabbat candles, and then accept Shabbat with saying Arvit. <Ref>S”A 267:2  
 
* Gemara Shabbat 118b quotes Rabbi Yose who prayed to have his portion among the people of Teveriyah who accepted Shabbat early. Rashi (D”H MeMachnisei) explains that since Teveriyah was in a valley and the sun appeared to set earlier the people would accept Shabbat early. Additionally, in Gemara Pesachim 105b Rav Nachman Bar Yitchak says that going into Shabbat the earlier one accepts Shabbat the better. Rashbam (D”H Ayulei) explains that it’s preferable because one is showing a love for the mitzvah to do it early and Zarizin Makdimin LeMitzvot (the enthusiastic are eager to do מצות early).  
 
* Gemara Shabbat 118b quotes Rabbi Yose who prayed to have his portion among the people of Teveriyah who accepted Shabbat early. Rashi (D”H MeMachnisei) explains that since Teveriyah was in a valley and the sun appeared to set earlier the people would accept Shabbat early. Additionally, in Gemara Pesachim 105b Rav Nachman Bar Yitchak says that going into Shabbat the earlier one accepts Shabbat the better. Rashbam (D”H Ayulei) explains that it’s preferable because one is showing a love for the mitzvah to do it early and Zarizin Makdimin LeMitzvot (the enthusiastic are eager to do מצות early).  

Revision as of 20:10, 15 September 2011

Making early Shabbat

  1. One may say Arvit earlier than the rest of the week even if one normally prays Mincha after Plag Mincha and Arvit after nighttime. Many authorities hold that if one is going to pray Arvit before nighttime that one should make sure to pray mincha before Plag Mincha even if one will pray privately, while some defend those who are lenient in a minyan to pray both Mincha and Arvit after Plag Mincha before nighttime. [1]
  2. Only after ten and three quarter hours (Plag Mincha) one may light Shabbat candles, and then accept Shabbat with saying Arvit. [2] Acceptance of Shabbat before that time is null and void. [3]
  3. If one accepted Shabbat early one may say Kiddush [4] and eat the Friday night meal before nighttime. However, some argue that one doesn’t fulfill one’s obligation before nighttime and so some say one shouldn’t start one’s meal until Tzet HaCochavim and some say that one should eat at least a Kezayit of bread after nightfall. [5]
  4. If one prayed Arvit if there’s more than a half hour before Tzet HaCochavim one may begin one’s meal, however, if there’s less than a half hour one shouldn’t begin one’s meal, however, those who do have what to rely on. Whether or not one began one’s Shabbat meal early one should make sure to repeat Shema after Tzet HaCochavim.[6]

References

    • The Mishna (Brachot 26a) writes that according to Rabbi Yehuda one must pray Mincha prior to ten and three quarter hours while according to Rabbanan mincha may be said until nighttime. According to Rabbi Yehuda the earliest time to say Mariv is ten and three quarter hours while according to Rabbanan the earliest time is nighttime.
    • Many Rishonim (Tosfot (Brachot 2a D”H MeMaymatai), Rabbenu Yonah (Brachot 18b D”H DeAved), Rosh (Brachot 4:3), Kesef Mishna (Tefillah 3:4), S”A 233:1) write that one must be consistent to either always follow Rabbi Yehuda or Rabbanan.
    • In fact, the Tur 293 quotes the Ritz Gayit who argues that since the minhag is to pray mincha during the week after Plag Mincha, on Friday night as well one may not pray early. [Similarly, Gemara Brachot 27a-b records the practice of Rav to pray Arvit early on Friday afternoon. Tosfot (Brachot 27a D”H DeRav) understands that Rav held like Rabbi Yehuda that the latest time for Mincha is Plag Mincha (ten and three quarter hours) and the earliest time for Arvit is also Plag Mincha.]
    • However, the Bet Yosef 267:2 argues based on the Rambam (Tefillah 3:7) and Rosh (Brachot 4:6) who simply codify the halacha of praying Arvit early on Friday that one is permitted to pray Arvit early even if one doesn’t do so during the week. [The same implication could be made from the Tur 267:1.] S”A codifies this as halacha that one is permitted to pray Arvit earlier than one does during the week.
    • [Magan Avraham 267:1 at first questions this ruling of S”A because the Gemara Brachot 27a seems to assign Rav to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda meaning that one may only pray early on Friday night if one always follows Rabbi Yehuda. He adds that this is also implied from Kesef Mishna (Tefillah 3:7) who says that Friday night has the same status as the rest of the week. However, the Magan Avraham answers that the Gemara only meant to assign Rav to Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion in the initial discussion but in conclusion the Gemara reinterpreted the story of Rav to mean that one may pray Arvit earlier than one does during the week. Additionally he explains that Arvit was instituted corresponding to the limbs and fats burned at night, however, on Friday night the limbs and fats were not burnt after nightfall. Mishna Brurah 267:3 adds that the ruling of S”A is based on those who say that accepting Shabbat makes it considered as if it was night regarding prayer.]
    • Nonetheless, the Mishna Brurah 267:3 writes that if one follows Rabbi Yehuda on Friday night (and prays Arvit early) one should make sure to say Mincha before Plag Mincha (ten and three quarter hours) so that one doesn’t contradict oneself within one night. The Biur Halacha (267:2 D”H VeBePlag) writes that even though there is a lenient opinion which permits a minyan to pray both Mincha and Arvit between Plag Mincha and nighttime, since the minhag isn’t to rely on this opinion during the week because this opinion isn’t supported by the Gemara on Friday night as well one shouldn’t rely on this opinion. The Mishna Brurah 267:3 writes that the only time to rely on this lenient opinion is in a need of great need and if one prays Arvit during the time of Ben HaShemashot. Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat, vol 1, pg 204-5) writes that one shouldn't contradict oneself to pray Mincha after plag mincha and arvit before nighttime. Nonetheless, Menuchat Ahava (vol 1, chap 6, note 6) writes that it is completely permitted but the minhag is to pray arvit after nightfall.
    • Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz quotes Rav Solavatchik who held like the Mishna Brurah and concluded that one should pray mincha privately without a minyan before Plag Mincha so as not to contradict oneself. He also writes that in order to avoid issues of Yuhara (appearing religiously arrogant) one should go to mincha when the minyan is praying and pretend to pray along with them.
  1. S”A 267:2
    • Gemara Shabbat 118b quotes Rabbi Yose who prayed to have his portion among the people of Teveriyah who accepted Shabbat early. Rashi (D”H MeMachnisei) explains that since Teveriyah was in a valley and the sun appeared to set earlier the people would accept Shabbat early. Additionally, in Gemara Pesachim 105b Rav Nachman Bar Yitchak says that going into Shabbat the earlier one accepts Shabbat the better. Rashbam (D”H Ayulei) explains that it’s preferable because one is showing a love for the mitzvah to do it early and Zarizin Makdimin LeMitzvot (the enthusiastic are eager to do מצות early).
    • How early can one accept Shabbat and light candles? Gemara Brachot 27a-b records the practice of Rav to pray Arvit early on Friday afternoon. Tosfot (Brachot 27a D”H DeRav) understands that this practice of accepting Shabbat early and lighting Shabbat candles early is only permitted starting from Plag Mincha (ten and three quarter hours). Rabbenu Yonah (Brachot 18b D”H Rav Tzali), Mordechai (Brachot Siman 90), and Rosh (Brachot 4:6) agree. [This is how the Bet Yosef 263:4 and 267:2 understands the above Rishonim.]
    • How early can one say Shema? The Rabbenu Yonah (18b D”H Rav Tzali) and Rosh (Brachot 4:6) add that one who prays Arvit early should only say Shemona Esreh early and say Brachot Shema and Shema after Tzet HaCochavim. Even though one is losing out on juxtaposing Shema to Shemona Esreh it’s preferable to accept Shabbat early because of the mitzvah to add from the week onto Shabbat. The Rambam (Tefillah 3:7) agrees that it’s an issue to separate Shema from Shemona Esreh against the Raavad.
    • The S”A 235:1 concludes that even though the halacha accepts the opinions that one doesn’t fulfill Shema before Tzet HaCochavim if one is praying in a minyan which is praying Arvit before Tzet HaCochavim one should still pray Shema with the Brachot together with the minyan and repeat Shema after Tzet HaCochavim. (See further discussion there).
  2. Mishna Brurah 267:4
  3. In Gemara Brachot 27b Shmuel says that if one accepted Shabbat early one may make Kiddish early (before nighttime). This is brought as halacha by the Rif (Brachot 18b, on the bottom), Rosh (Brachot 4:6, at the end), and Rambam (Shabbat 29:11). The S”A 267:2 writes that one may even before nighttime implying that one may make Kiddish early. The Mishna Brurah 267:5 writes explicitly that one may make Kiddish before nighttime.
    • [The Mishna Brurah 267:5 writes the reason one may make Kiddish before nightfall is because the acceptance of Shabbat early makes it considered as if it was already Shabbat. See Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat vol 1 pg 201-4) who discusses how the Rambam could hold of this considering that he omits the entire idea of Tosefet Shabbat (accepting Shabbat early).]
  4. The Bet Yosef 267:2 quotes the Mahari Avuhav who infers from the Rosh who says that one should wait to have Matza on Pesach after nightfall that on a regular Shabbat one could fulfill one’s obligation of the Shabbat meal before nighttime. The Magan Avraham 267:1 (at the end) agrees that from many Rishonim it’s implied that one who makes early Shabbat may have one’s meal early, however, the Shelah and Bach say that one must have at least a Kezayit of bread after Tzet HaCochavim. Mishna Brurah 267:5 rules that preferably one should be concerned for the strict opinions to have at least a Kezayit of bread after nightfall. Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat vol 1 pg 201-4) agrees that preferably one should be concerned for the strict opinions one’s entire meal after nightfall.
    • The Bet Yosef 267:2 asks that even if one is permitted to have one’s Shabbat meal before nighttime how could it permitted to eat before saying Shema. The Bet Yosef answers that even though we hold that one doesn’t fulfill Shema until Tzet HaCochavim since many opinions hold that one may fulfill saying Shema earlier it’s not considered like eating before having said Shema.
    • The Magan Avraham 267:2 argues on the Bet Yosef and says that since one didn’t fulfill Shema one may begin one’s meal within a half hour of Tzet HaCochavim.
    • Mishna Brurah 267:6 rules that if there’s less than a half hour before Tzet HaCochavim one shouldn’t begin one’s meal because according to many opinions one hasn’t fulfilled one’s obligation of Shema, however, those who do begin the meal at that time have what to rely on. Nonetheless, concludes Mishna Brurah, whether or not one eats one’s meal early one must make sure to repeat Shema after Tzet HaCochavim. Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat vol 1 pg 201-4) agrees that one should make sure to start one’s meal before a half hour before Tzet HaCochavim.