Which Melachot are forbidden on Yom Tov?

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Difference between Yom Tov and Shabbat

  1. All the Melachot that are forbidden on Shabbat are also forbidden on Yom Tov except making a food for that day (Ochel Nefesh), carrying, and lighting a fire. [1] The details of these differences between Shabbat and Yom Tov are described below.
  2. Carrying and lighting a fire is permitted on Yom Tov. [2] Carrying is only permitted if there’s some need for Yom Tov, however, it’s forbidden to carry for no reason. [3]
  3. One may not light a fire from scratch. [4]
  4. Extinguishing a fire for the purpose of Ochel Nefesh is permitted. [5]

Preparing food on Yom Tov

  1. Ashkenazim are strict to only cook for Ochel Nefesh things that couldn't have been prepared on Erev Yom Tov, however, food which would have tasted the same whether it was cooked on Yom Tov or before, it must be cooked before Yom Tov. [6] if one forgot and there’s a need for the Yom Tov one may do it on Yom Tov with a shinui. [7] If one was unable to make this type of food before yom Tov because of Ones (unforeseeable circumstances). [8]
  2. One is permitted to do Melacha to fix vessels in order to make food that's Ochel Nefesh if the fixing couldn't have been done before Yom Tov. [9]
  3. The Melachot of Kesirah (Harvesting), Techinah (Grinding), Besirah (picking grapes), Sechitah (Squeezing liquids out of a solid), and Tzedah (Trapping), are forbidden on Yom Tov even if they are needed for Ochel Nefesh. [10]
    1. Just like on Shabbat it's permitted to squeeze a food into another food, it's also permitted on Yom Tov. For example, it'd be permitted to squeeze a lemon onto sugar and then pour water on top of it. [11]
    2. It’s permitted to soak matzah and squeeze out the liquid in preparation to cooking. [12]

Derabbanan prohibitions on Yom Tov

  1. It’s forbidden to ask a non-Jew on Yom Tov to do any activity which is prohibited for a Jew to perform (just like Amirah LeNochri on Shabbat). [13]
  2. Mutkzah items which are permissible to be moved Shabbat are forbidden on Yom Tov as the rabbis were strict on Yom Tov regarding Muktzeh. [14]
  3. For example items which were meant to be sold, items put away for storage and aren’t meant to be moved for a while, or items which aren’t used because it’s disgusting, and Nolad are Muktzeh on Yom Tov. [15]
  4. Bones which were removed from the meat on Yom Tov is Nolad and is Muktzeh on Yom Tov. [16]
  5. There’s a dispute whether taking medicine applies to (first day of) Yom Tov nowadays and one should be strict but those who are lenient have what to rely on. [17]
  6. It’s forbidden to violate Techum on Yom Tov. [18]
  7. It’s forbidden to do any activity which is forbidden by the פסוק of VeDaber Daver on Yom Tov. [19]
  8. It’s forbidden to buy and sell on Yom Tov. [20]
  9. It’s permissible to do a verbal preparation from one day of Yom tov to the second day of Yom Tov Shel Galiyot, however, it’s forbidden to do an action as preparation from one day to another (which is called Hachanah). [21]

Having one's animal rest on Yom Tov

  1. Similar to Shabbat it's forbidden to rent out one's animal to a non-Jew on Yom Tov because one is not allowed to have one's animal do work on Yom Tov. [22]
  2. One is not allowed to have one's animal carry a burden for them even in a courtyard. [23]

Mitzvot of Yom Tov

  1. There’s a mitzvah to add to Yom Tov just like there’s a mitzvah of Tosefet Shabbat. [24]

Sources

  1. Mishna in Betzah 37 says that anything that is forbidden on Shabbat is forbidden on Yom Tov except "Ochel Nefesh" which is limited to making food that that day alone. The Gemara Betzah 12 explains that since Bet Hillel holds of the principle of "Metoch" (lit. based on) and so it's permissible to carry and lit a fire on Yom Tov becasue once the Melacha is permitted in order to do Ochel Nefesh it's permitted also not for Ochel Nefesh purposes. S"A 495:1 rules like Bet Hillel and permits making food for Ochel Nefesh, carrying and lighting a fire on Yom Tov.
  2. S”A 495:1
  3. Rama 518:1, Beiur Halacha 518:1 s.v. Mitoch
  4. S”A 502:1
  5. The Gemara Shabbat 134a states that it is permitted to put a piece of meat on coals in order to cook the meat even though it'll temporarily extinguish the coals. Rashi s.v. lo efshar explains that the reason one may extinguish the coals for cooking the meat is because one may do melacha on Yom Tov for Ochel Nefesh that couldn't have been done before Yom Tov.
    • The Rif (Betizah 12a) however, explains that cooking the meat on the coals is permitted because it doesn't cause the coals to be extinguished. The Ramban (Milchamot 12a s.v. Amar HaKotev Zeh) and Ran (12a s.v. Iybaya) explain the Rif as saying that putting the meat on the coals isn't considered extinguishing because it is temporary and will reignite. Accordingly, the Rif holds that in general one may not extinguish for the purposes of Ochel Nefesh.
    • The Rosh (Beitzah 2:23) quotes the version of the Rif, but seems to side with Rashi in Beitzah 4:8. Additionally, the Rambam (Yom Tov 4:6) doesn't side clearly with the Rif or Rashi. With regards to the halacha, although the Bet Yosef 511:4 quotes the Rif and Ran, in S"A 507:4 it is clear he follows the opinion of Rashi. Taz 511:7, Eliyah Rabba 511:6, and Mishna Brurah 511:25 rule like Rashi that extinguishing is permitted for Ochel Nefesh.
  6. Rama 495:1 rules in name of the Or Zaruha and Maharil that one should only do Ochel Nefesh if the food couldn't have been prepared before Yom Tov. Mishna Brurah 495:8 in the name of the Achronim that such is the halacha.
  7. Rama 495:1, Mishna Brurah 495:8
  8. Mishna Brurah 495:10
  9. Gemara Megillah 7 has a dispute whether on Yom Tov one can fix a vessel needed for Ochel Nefesh, and Rabbi Yehuda permits. S"A 495:1 rules like Rabbi Yehuda.
  10. S"A 495:2
  11. Rabbi Eli Mansour on dailyhalacha.com
  12. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:14
  13. Chazon Ovadyah (Yom Tov pg 1), Mishna Brurah 495:1
  14. S”A 495:4
  15. Mishna Brurah 495:15
  16. Mishna Brurah 495:17
  17. Piskei Teshuvot 496:1
  18. Hilchot HaMoadim (Dinei Yom Tov, 1:16, pg 32)
  19. Hilchot HaMoadim (Dinei Yom Tov, 1:22, pg 39), Piskei Teshuvot 495:1
  20. Hilchot HaMoadim (Dinei Yom Tov, 1:26, pg 40)
  21. Rama 495:15, Mishna Brurah 495:23
  22. Bet Yosef (OC Siman 495) quotes a dispute whether Shevitat behemto (letting one's animal rest) applies to Yom Tov or is it specific to Shabbat. (This dispute is also quoted in the Orchot Chaim (Hilchot Yom Tov #5) and Kol Bo (Siman 58 pg 17d)). The Bet Yosef concludes that it seems from the poskim (Rif, Rambam, and Rosh) who don't make this distinction between Shabbat and Yom Tov that Shevitat Behemto is forbidden on Yom Tov.The Bach 495 argues on the Bet Yosef explaining that the reason that Shevitat Behemto and Mechamer don't apply to Yom Tov is that they aren't included the Melachot but rather a specific prohibition which is exclusive to Shabbat. The Rama 246:3 rules that leniently. Magan Avraham concludes that one should be strict based on this Bet Yosef. So rule many Achronim.
  23. Rambam Yom Tov 5:2 writes that one is forbidden to have one's animal carry for him on Yom Tov as it's a activity usually done on the weekday. S"A 495:3 rules this as halacha. Magan Avraham 495:5 explains that this law isn't dependant on Shevitat behemto but rather based on doing activity on Yom Tov like one would do on a weekday (which would only be a rabbinic prohibition). Mishna Brurah explains that according to such an explanation it's forbidden to have the animal carry a burden even in a courtyard without crossing any halachic domains.
  24. Piskei Teshuvot 495:1