Maabaid

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Definition

  1. Me’abeid can be defined as hardening soft things in order to slow down the decaying process.[1]

In the Mishkan

  1. Me’abeid (tanning) was done in the Mishkan on the skins of the techashim [2] which were used to make the coverings for the structure of the Mishkan.[3]

Practical Examples

  1. If one were to soften the stiffness in the leather uppers of a new pair of shoes by bending the leather back and forth in order to make the shoe more comfortable, he would be in violation of a tolda of me'abeid. [4]

Maabaid on Food

  1. An example of this prohibition is that one may not salt a plate of cucumbers, radishes, or other various vegetables.[5]

Links

Sources

  1. Rambam's commentary to mishnayos Shabbos 7:2
  2. Rashi Shabbos 73a "Hazad"
  3. Shemos 26:14
  4. The 39 Melochos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 902). The Rambam Hilchos Shabbos 6:11 writes that one can violate a toldah of Me’abeid by trampling on animal skins in order to harden them or by softening them by pulling the skins with one’s hand in order to make the leather uniform in the manner that shoemakers would prepare leather.
  5. The 39 Melochos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol. 3 pg 905) For a further discussion of the details of this prohibition see Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 321:3-4 and the Mishna Brurah there.
    • There is a debate in the Gemarah Shabbos 75b whether Me’abeid applies to food or not. Rabah bar Rav Hunah holds Me’abeid applies to food and therefore one who salts meat on Shabbos is chayav. Rava, on the other hand, argues that Me’abeid does not apply to foods. The Rambam Hilchos Shabbos 11:5 paskins like Rava that Me’abeid does not apply to foods.
    • The Gemarah in Shabbos 108b quotes a statement of Rav Chizkia in the name of Abaye that it is forbidden to salt radishes on Shabbos. Rashi "Ein Molichin Znon ubeitzah" explains that this is forbidden because salting these foods makes them hard and thus “tans” them. Tosfos 75b "Ein ibud b'ochlin" seems to adopt the position of rashi and explains that even though Me’abeid does not apply to food, this is only on a torah level. Midirabanan Me’abeid applies to foods. The Rambam Hilchos Shabbos 22:10 explains that the reason for this rabbinic prohibition is that it appears one is pickling food and pickling is asur on Shabbos because it looks like Bishul and this also the opinion of the Shulchan Aruch 321:3. Rabbi Ribiat The 39 Melochos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3. pg 904) explains that a heavily salted food acquires the halachik status of a hot solid food (Rosai’ch K’ztli) in many areas of halachah. Similarly, foods soaking in a pickling solution attain (to some degree) the status of M’vushal. Therefore, although the concept of Rosai’ch K’tzli does not truly apply to the laws of Shabbos, Chazal nevertheless prohibited salting foods on Shabbos because salting foods creates a perception that food is being cooked.